Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales
Field book used by Dr L. Leichhardt on the exploration journey from Moreton Bay to Port Essington, 1844-1845
SAFE / C 158 (Safe 1 / 295)
[Cover of manuscript]
from Mr Clint.
Aust. Mus. Spcm No H.721.
Leichhardt Field Book 1844-45
Ullugurri the tribe of [indecipherable]
Belbo (Badba berbo)
The progressive order of this volume is from back to front. The apparent original order is set out below:
The record begins on p. 143 (1 Oct. 1844) and reads in reverse order to p. 124 (7-15 Dec. 1844) and p.123, and continues from p.150 (15-27 Dec. 1844), p.149, p.148 (27 Dec. 1844-2 Jan. 1845) to p.147.
The next section is p.120 (2-8 Jan. 1845) to p.93 (4 Apr. 1845), followed by the entry on p.122 (4-8 Apr. 1845)
The record continues from p.60 (8-13 Apr. 1845) to p.30 (4-9 July 1845), p.62 (9-18 July), p.61, then p.92 (19 July- 24 July 1845) back to p.64 (15-20 Oct. 1845) and finally from pp. 63 and 28 (20-26 Oct. 1845) to p.14 (10-17 Dec. 1845)
13.2.29 Aust. Mus
The progressive order of this Field Book is from back to front (Timba [Jimba] to Port Essington) used by Dr. L. Leichhardt on The Exploration Journey from Moreton Bay to Port Essington 1844-5.
13.2.29 Aust. Mus.
Aust. Mus. H.721
Field Book used by Dr. L. Leichhardt on The Exploration Journey from
Moreton Bay to Port Essington
[This page has been pasted over but appears to show Aboriginal words in pencil partly covered but showing the following]:
Ullugurri the lubra of Myvale
Belbo (Badba berbo)
Manmima Warr Kaukar.....
[Diagram of a dome shape and notations]
288 295 298 radiating points from Mt Forbes
Taken from A. Cunningham’s Map.
Also a long oval shape with 6 circles (see diagram)
[Radiating lines from a central point] (see diagram)
[Blank pages from page 9 to page 18]
[Diagram and notes from left side of page]:
fine creek with palm trees
well of Billwhite
groves and all most a forest of Cabbage tree palms
Ironstone ridges between the different water courses frequently very stony
Marairs generally, where the creeks enter into mangrove swamps, which intervenes between the Marair and the sea
Victory 17th Decbr
[3 illegible names]
footpath after water
[indecipherable] the footpath from Pitchenelumbo continues here to the harbour. 18th Decbr big Marair Raffles bay (Maria)
Some few cabbage palms
the Ulugula tree ([indecipherable] Exocarpus)
[Lower half of left side:]
w 55and deg; W.
The country composed of Ironstone ridges, sometimes very high and stoney.
few palms sometimes in extensive groves along the slopes of those hills
fine running creek Mt Morris bay
Jacke Backes creek mount morris bay
Lat . 11 ° 25 15th Decbr.
Lat.11 ° 28’ 15th Decbr.
Ironstone ridges openly timbered, high grass- old.
buffalo tracks numerous
Mangrove swamps with many small creeks coming from the ridgy centre of the neck
lat.11° 32’ 14th Decbr.
Van Diemens golf.
[Right hand side of map from top of page]:
[Straight diagonal line from top of page to bottom starting with an asterisk and date 14th Decbr. and following down the right hand side of the line]:
wetherly creek to Petchemelambo
sea coast Mount Morris Bay- an island opposite
little gooseberry tree- cypress pine
fanpalm pandanus Bloodwood
teatree whitegum the
the blackfellows leave us
Saltwater creeks heading in a more elevated country- rock frequently visible red Iron sandstone
Iron pebbles covering the ground- teatree flats
Forest-teatree-whitegum, a species of Ironbark- Peg. Ironbark
Cesplepius (a new species)
N.W by N. 10 h.
forestland small patches of vinebrush frequently on nets of sea shells- frequent tracks of buffaloes
11th Decbr. Buffalo camp
one immense plain
8 m. N.W.
[illegible section at bottom right of page starting with “a prominent…"]
10th Decbr. thunderstorm Imberbi camp
[Left side of line:]
Badba birbo? Thunderstorm northward.
the country though elevated to the Eastward appears flat
without end to the westward
I entered Victoria late in the afternoon of the 17th Decbr. 1845. after having travelled with my camps very little short of 3000 miles, which, I hope will be shortened by my successors to perhaps 1800.
[Continuation of illegible section from page 19 reads]:
a prominent Mtain to the eastward probably one of those 2 marked on the neck of the penninsula
*4 prominent hills, two swelling, one like B[indecipherable], one rather a range
[Left hand side of page]:
Plain 10th Decembr.
fine lagoon to which friendly blackfellows led us.
teatree swamp changing into a pandanus creek
teatree swamp changing into a pandanus creek
Lat. 11° 56’ 9th Decbr.
forest land undulating
a fine chain of lagoons
rocky hill with swamp.
rocks with surrounding scoria
plains, fine lagoon, rocks
Lat 12 ° 6’ 8th Decbr.
This River is the real continuation of the East Alligator and forms the Saltwater River.
large river with sandy beds pools of fresh water fine lagoons lined with Pandanus
forestland with many kinds of creeks to the westward
forestland melaleuca goose & stringy bark
footpath of the natives
[Right hand side of page from the top]
Lat 12 ° 11’ rocks 7th Decembr.
bluff mt heads probably the valley of a River
peaks and short Ranges round which the river turns
bluff mt. 4 m. off
plain Lat 12.23 5 Decbr
6 Decbr large shallow lagoon plain
rocky hills rising abruptly out of the plain
most romantick country rocky hill
Lat 12.23° 5 Decbr
Adieu from the blackfellow
the valley of the upper Alligator or rather goose river is one of the most romantick countries we have seen-wild rocks and rocky hills rising abruptly out of a large plain with luxurious verdure, lagoons scattered over in every direction, these animated by myriads of anserines and ducks of all sorts. Smoke everywhere shows that the inhabitants are numerous and we met with a strong tribe of well made though rather noisy and thiefish even.
4 m. broad
*2 Decbr. Blackf. wells Allamurr camp
low range blackfellows smoke very abundant all along the right side of the river.
high mt and peaks rising abruptly out of the flat country
immense plain 11 m. SE to S Many saltwater creeks extend between the forestland with its external belt of Pandanus and the River
the plains partly beautifully grassed
distant mtains to the westward smoke smoke smoke
forestland level at the outskirts of the forestland only blackfellows wells 4-5’ deep. water in the wells of the plains brackish
[central lower page:] 1 m E brush palm trees 3 m.
saltwater river with its lat.12.23 creek sandy
4 Decbr Nelumbolagum
2 Decbr blackf wells
Stiff dry not boggy
immense plain blackf. wells
1 Decbr forestland and plain
blacksoil with rich grass.
All the waters to the NW and Westward. Creeks very numerous Some rocky bands and puddled holes with rainwater beautiful grass along the creeks (the [indecipherable] grass frequent through the forest)
[Right hand side of page from the top]:
Both stages here in point of forest vegetation and geologic the same caracter with the [indecipherable], with the exception of the ground and of the immense plain skirted by teatrees pandanus whitegum
running Pandanus brook
Lat.12° 21’49" 36th Novbr. fat Emu granite
29th Novbr. Lat. 12.25’ 41" Creek densely lined with Pandanus further off palm
[Written vertically: ] The whole country of the swamps is densely inhabited by blackfellows who seem particularly to live on their wommala [woomera?] and small bird spear, with which they are able to hit geese and ducks flying in very great distances.
Ironsandstone and pudding or conglomerate compose all the ridges.
12 m 115° East
ridges thickly wood swamp 27th Novbr big creek [indecipherable] swamp ridges 12° 51’ hills swamp with water 26th Novbr immense plain
hills at the foot
first Saltwater + the river with brush, with fine Bamboo and with pastures- Teatrees
immense day swamp only at
9 ½ mile NNW Swamp hilly covered with Ironstone pebbly Lat.18.0 ° 36’ *.
28th Novbr. a drop of rainwater in a sandy creek: thunderstorm ridges scrubby.
creek to the South East
9 m. N. 15° E
This swamp extends for both East and NE. and according to the blackfellows it is a very big and deep water perhaps a lake.
Immense Swamps, at present dry with islands of Pandanus and Teatree, features very scattered. Beautiful grass at the outside- a stiff clay. The water all covered with banks of wild geese and ducks
of which immense plains, partly richly grassed with blacksoil- partly dry with stiff clay- footpaths of the natives in every direction- pandanus groves and brush teeming with walloby
little creek with some rocky basins of water
palmtree in groves frequent in the Ironstone ridges
ending into a broad fine Deep lagoon, which joins the River
[Left side of page at top]:
Diagonal line and river course from * 25th Novbr
low Range in the S East end of the big swamp, at which we are encamped
17 22 ½ 8 =47
a great number of grassy swamps covered with waterfowl and branches parallel to the River- Ironsand
stone ridges between and outside of the Swamps. The ground partly rotten- the ridges stony, covered with quartz pebbles rather thickly covered- Palm tree again.
2 fine large sheets of water where creeks join the main River.
N W by N.
Porphyritic frenite cropt out here.
Lat. 13 ° 5’ 49" 24th Novbr
large sheets of water surrounded by a rich dark green vegetation
Blackfellows numerous heaps of a small species of [indecipherable] all along the Riverside.
low grounds with teatree very frequent along the River
ironsand and few Ironstone ridges approach from time to time the River which gets considerably broad and is closely lined with Pandanus. Two species of Myrtle with an acidulous pericarp very frequent on the banks- a small handed palmtree on the Sandstone Ridges
Ibises and anserines and ducks frequent on the swamps.
[Written vertically: country in consequence of the rains beautifully grassed]
23rd Nov.- thunderstorm
teatree flowers frequent
8 m NW b. N?
large fine valley into which all the Rivers seem to enter by falls 3-500’ high.
precipice into a fine large valley with a system of Rivers and creeks
22 Nov steep Mt walls 17th Nov.
precipice very rocky
fine flat very rocky
cascades rock 19th Novbr
Banksias and Melaleuca scrub 16th Novb.
Right hand side of page at top:
16th Novbr big creek fr E
exceedingly rocky Range
creek fine melonhole flat
bigger creek pebbly holes
bigger creek fr. E.
*15th Novbr big creek
big creek with good supply of water
scrubby forest level
a fine pool of water
* 14th Novbr sth thunderstorm at night
the creek soon gets into flats [indecipherable]
swamp between rocks figtree with yellow fruit and the gebung
Melaleucagum and Stringybark with Banksia one fine white gum flat.
N 13th Novbr.
[Written vertically: the rocks crop out a few times but the whole extend of 4 hours travelling over a sandy level country]
the heighth of the tableland over the valley appears to be about 2000’. It is higher than the Downs over the neighbouring country though the contrast perhaps more visible
[From top of page]:
A river streaming through in a small stream at its upper course in a
n very deep valley cut into the Sandstone York accompanied by thick scrub in which thousands of flying foxes
11th 12th 13th Novbr flying fox Shooting
running creek in which I came with Charley to the River
tremendous rocky country gold finch left- found dead when I returned with Charley
Fine Sandstone rock
horizontal Stratification- the strata remain cut as they are in forms of tables altars pillars, pyramids.
sandy Melaleuca forest rather scrubby
teatree Swamps with fine waterholes
*10th Novbr. Goldfinch nearly knocked up.
ridges Open country, well grassed nutgum, applegum
swamp 6 ½ m NNW Pandanus Creek
very rocky creek
Some ranges further off
Strong ridges with Cordwood and Cypress pines
Lat 13.38’ 28"
6th Novbr. fine waterhole lined with pandanus
banks of the Creek open well timbered and grassy
9m. S 60° W
9th Novbr low Sandstone Ranges accompany the creek on its left side in a greater or smaller distance
rocky creek (rather thickly wooded
big teatree swamp
stringy bark forest melaleuca gum
14 m 30 ° W at Redout
stringy bark forest
creek turning to the teatree Range
ridges thickly wooded
Lat. 13.50.38 * S.[indecipherable]
A very fine shady tree for spreading branches, with a bark ressembling that of the box, belonging to the Eucalyptis, is particularly frequent at the rocky creek from which I turnt to the River. A new black rock pigeon (
Geophaps Petroprapa gld with brown or tawny primaries very frequent on the rocks and in the shady recesses. The brush of the River with many new trees, but too high for getting specimens, which I should be besides unable to carry: a tree with grapes of green flat fruit acid, like unripe gooseberries when stewed,- another with oval blue fruit acid, the monosperm kernel bitter (food of the flying fox) A new Proteaceae tree; the bloodwood in high perfection, a new palmtree low with pinnatified leaf.
Many new trees and plants are observed, but I am almost dead- I despair of breaking even a specimen.
[From top left:]
Lat 113° 50’ * 5 Novbr.
Boxslope in a Honeyybark forest
naked rocky sandstone Ridge
stringybark forest 11m.N55 W
probably going into Calverts creek- [arrows to:observed dep.]
Scrubby stringybark forest
Lat. 13° 56’ 45" 4th Novbr.
fine well grassed springy country pandanus creek crossing Range from NW-SE
fossil bivalves in the pebbles of the creek
Range to the NW.
[Vertical]: sandy stringy bark forest cypress pine
probable course of calverts creek
*Lat. 14° 2’ 46" 3 Novbr
Lat 14° 9’ * 2 Novbr
flats of the creek limited but well grassed running water
Basaltic flat top
Lat. 14.16’ * 1 November
the Cypress pine the int. acacia the Melaleuca gum the applegum frequent in the stringy bark forest.
From top: Lat.14° 16’ * 1 Novembr.
Basalt high Ranges opening opening
fine flat openly hundred Pandanus country well grassed
Long valley with rises
Basaltic country at the westside of Sandstone Range
fine flat broad
29th Octbr Second camp- small pool of water and a small spring fritted Sandstone
*blackfellows wells, small supply of water 29th Octbr.
Lat. 14° 24’ 31st Octbr
Octbr Camp at the Pandanus creek west of the Range
Pandanus creek to South by W. joining Calverts creek, which appears to be the principal one.
basalt at the foot of Sandstone Ranges
immense flat covered with tea and boatree surrounded by headland ranges
thick scrub open teatree forest
Lat.14.33 *The 28th Octbr. a big creek
scrubby ridges empty water hole
melonhole flat scrub
Undulating teatree forest
stoney *26th Octbr
flat teatree and Boxtree forest
head of the Roper on steadily rising plains
Lat.14.40 * places 60°w plains
27th Octbr - old mare knocked up- bla..
The country of the 1 Novbr remarkably fine. The scenerie pretty, as Ranges and high isolated hills and mountains burst every mile upon the traveller. They are separated by immense flats, openly timbered, or timberless or covered with groves of Pandanus. The green lines of Pandanus creeks and the sandy creeks still accompanied by the drooping teatree and the
Brunonia [indecipherable] and the darkened figtree enliven the landscape with the imagination at least of water being present. And a running stream (Calverts creek – 50 yards broad serpentine through the valley and many a dry Pandanus creek and hole are full of deep green Jyphas at the verges of the creeks. There is a white gum (in blossom) a species of rusty gum, an applegum, the Erythrina Acacia. The grass is various and most luxuriant, the small yellow bean is very frequent, flying foxes in thousands- and an alligator in a deep rocky pond. The Basalt breaks out at the west NW and Northside of the Sandstone in the immense valley west of the dividing Range. The waters belong probably to a system South of the alligator Rivers, running all to the Southward and South by West.
An amphitheater of mountains surrounds an immense Teatree and Boatree flat at the NNE Mt ark a big creek runs to the Eastward. This creek comes from between the Ranges to the Northward, where I observed first a
t the foot of Phonolith cropping out under sandstone
mt. to the northwood
alligator head Ranges to the Eastward
*26th Octbr. Scrub of the broadstemmed leg.
the bed of the River exceedingly rocky and split into water holes and chains of pools, the principal branch with fine water, lined with Pandanus.
fine plains between creek and River 8m. N.74° W.
fine but waterless creek to the northward good sized creek
The scrub on loose sandy soil, through which sandstone crops has the same caracter as that near the seaward the broadstemmed leg. prevailing
lat.14.39. *25th Octbr
bluff open well grassed country along the River
this is by far to much to the northward. Lat. 14° 44’
the River with fine water commences to take the caracter of the Lynd with several channels and [indecipherable] Pandanus fine drooping teatrees and Casuarinas. 6m.NW by W
scrub cypress pine open country big creek
fine open country but very strong-rocky sandstone ridges in every direction
head of the tide- a ledge of rocks forms a good crossing
*23rd Octbr Macarthurs the Wilton drowning camp
Branch coming from N b. E
ridges on both sides of the river- the banks either broken in Ruwsberry yamtree Scrub or fine and open and well grassed
Ranges of hills
fine open country rocky barren hills
fine open Box flats
stream running but boggy [indecipherable]
the whole country along the River composed of fritted sandstone and layers of indurated clay. Both rocks seem metamorphosed and correspond probably to the Newcastle formation with coal below- the indurated clay frequently white or grey and slaty and containing many leaflets of M[indecipherable]
Ranges of hills very rocky and barren
Rocky hills along the creek 9-10 m. SW.
*22nd Octbr. fritted sandstone regularly stratified.
[Left side of page]:
An almost uninterurrupted Boxflat with melonholes, dead shells of Paludina, a big crab and the turtle
these Boxflats are very probably swampy during the rainy season. The crabs are very large.- they are well grassed-but the grass is dry.
12 m. 5. forest lands with Nonda
little creek with water
where Here and there the stiff soil of the melonholes intermixed with reddish small quartz pebbles. 16° 47’ good creek with waterholes
a large Boxflat with mallon grass water courses with flooded gum
Bauhinia forest with the Crotins?
a succession of plains of more or less extend, well grassed, separated by a very open forest of the Hakia of Kents lagoon, Cistrus Bauhenia, Whitegum full of Melon holes and many Native Melons upon which the Bushant feeds
the applegum makes its appearance again.
towards the creek the country more broken, bigger waterholes with tree of the
Seven, Box Acacia with articulate white Seeds
*9th July Rawsberry yam tree
Big creek to the westward
Sandstone Crops out again withing the bed
[Right side of page:]
Lat.16° 15’ 11" * 4th July
melaleuca forest opens into
very large plains skirted by Melaleuca
Hollows almost without vegetation
strips of forest
plains forest plains
plains ferns 13 m. S. 15° W
the Staten River? saltwater creek
River with saltwater
5th 6th July Smoke of blackfellows fires everywhere round the horizons
creek with lagoons
Lat. 16° 27’ 26"
this is the blind termination of a saltwater creek which probably is in connection with the River
head of the tide- ½ mile higher freshwater
the River Staten with saltwater, the tide coming up.
the River with a broad sandy bed, of the caracter of the Mitchell. Easily crossed at low tide at least.
lagoons, fine forest, well grassed
Erythrina Acacia thickets
Extensive Box flat
smoke of the blackfellow everywhere- several seen by Charley
good sized creek 7th July
Those plains we crossed at yesterdays stage are perhaps the largest we have met with. If I am allowed to guess, several were 15-20 miles long and 5 to 10 miles broad and they are separated only by narrow strips of forestland, so that the whole country is almost one continual plain. They are skirted by Melaleuca shallows and on
e on of these, on a sandy soil Sclerolaena was first observed, which assured us that we were near the saltwater.
+ we crossed the Real River about 2 ½ miles farther, the above mentioned being a large blind saltwater creek with a blunt termination. this River forms a fine broad stream, often more than 100 yards across and navigable with boats at least to the head of the tide, which is perhaps 15-20 miles from its entering the sea. The lower part and the creeks are lined with mangrove, its banks are cover accompanied by fine flat forestland, with the exception of those parts where creeks join it. The creeks generally spread out into an entire sandy level without banks all covered with various Melaleucas and a species of Hakea and several other small trees or shrubs. Higher up the channel becomes evident. Deeper holes for water and parallel lines of lagoons often covered with Lotus make their appearance. On the sandy beds near the River on which the tide occasionally spreads there is abundance of salt and no where salt could be made more abundantly or more quickly than here and probably on several other Rivers or creeks at this coast. (of course only in the dry season, as during the whet season probably half the country is under water.
Box tree flat
the whole extend of country of these two stages has a peculiar caracter
Boxtree It is at present very badly watered, but seems almost swampy during the rainy season. Boxtree flats of greater or smaller separated by very long stretches of rather undulating country or flats covered with thickets of melaleuca
Lat.15° 5’ * 1 July
and of the little tree of the severn, the lanceolate Silver grevillea and that with pinnatafied leaf and the Hakea of kents lagoon are very frequent. Over 24 miles we past only one small creek and one shallow water course. But several Melaleuca thickets and scrubs were almost impenetrable, and another was full of Pandanus, which generally grows more along the edges of the strips of fine forestland, which we occasionally past.- Several new Melaleucas were seen and the whole country bears the caracter of that of the sea coast.
Sandstone, soft with edged pieces of quartz- the sort of the undulating country very shallow
waterholes with yellow willoriam & oily berries
the Melaleuca of different species along the creek a belt of fine forest with Nonda
*2nd July a shallow watercourse rising from melaleuca thickets with Boxtree flats and Pandanus groves
Boxtree and Melaleuca flats- Cistus frequent Pandanus and Nonda with its yellow mealy eatable fruit, on which the Emu principally feeds at present. The Emu very abundant
*melaleuca lined water course which splits into a great number of waterholes densely lined by the Mangrove Myrtle. The water slightly brackish
28th of June
29th-Enterrment of Mr gilbert
30th- Stop for Roper and Calvert
At this camp the blackfellows attacked us at night, killed Mr gilbert and wounded Roper and Calvert severely.
A most beautiful country, plains forestland and chains of lagoons covered with Lotus united to make it extremely favourable for pasturing. Blackfellows very numerous.
*28th June Teatree lagoon camp.
lagoon covered with lotus creek or river which I consider to be the Nassau. A loose Sandstone cropping out in the main and subordinate creeks. Along the creek the Ulloa Myrtle very frequent- and a leafless tree ressembling with appearance the Casuarina.
lagoons plains plains and forestland lagoons with Lotus scrub creek
27 June Lat 15.55.8"
WSW large plains separated by belts of very open forest land. the plains with melonholes, densely grassed, no herbs. Probably all swampy during the rainy season. The rather stunted timber Boxtree Bloodwood Applegum- Bauhinia on the higher plains- a dense scrub at the end of the stage
Lat. 15.52’ 38" *26th June
Pandanus belts of forest land separate the plains, which are either dry and level, or full of melonholes. All rich with grass
Lat. 15.51’ 26" fine plains and several fine lagoons chain of lagoons groves of Pandanus
*Boxtree flat with many melon holes large plains with melonholes creeks or chains of lagoons which appear not in connection with the river 10.N 35° W fine grassy forestland
25th June whitch [indecipherable]
wallobis very frequent
Lat. 15. 59. 30 * plains 24th June
[Some mathematical calculations at top of page]
The River beyond the lat. of the Nassau will keep its name of the Mitchell, which I have given to it in honor of Sir Th. Mitchell the explorer of South East Australia. I have left it, because my time and my provisions do not allow me to go further Northward at the East side of the golf.
[diagram of stream]
the Banks of the River covered with dense brush. the fanleaved palm tree very frequent, often very high and thick.
*lagoon 24th June 7 m N [indecipherable] W
Creek, which goes of the River and probably independently to the seacoast forms the Nassau R.
Lat.16° 0’ 26"
palm tree lagoon with swarms of Sheldrake
In the bed of the River which is well 1 ½ mile broad and sandy, I found a soft violet Shale rock 23th June Roper shot a Walloby – (17 ducks)
fine country changing with rather barren Bauhinia plains and gullies along the River.
This stage very broken near the River; Bauhinia plains off the River; several lagoons and dry swamps surrounded by the redblossomed Myrtle.
Lat. 15° 3’ 11" the grassy forestland becomes more and more extensive the grass denser and richer Boxtree Bloodwood prevailing. Apple gum rather rare. *22nd June
fine lagoon 11 m N 60
Red blossomed Bauhinia very frequent.
Lat. 15° 9’ 41" *21st June Palmtrees first seen at the River. rain unexpected lotus and stark meal
caracter of the country the same as on the preceding stages
fine lagoons- lotus
133 miles West from Lions Nest
[diagram of river labelled the Lynd]
*the 20th June.
fine chain of lagoons
10 NW plains and open forest groves of the cistres [indecipherable] of the Spathoderm Bignonia [indecipherable] tree, of the [indecipherable] a Bauhenia like tree- [indecipherable[ Several other trees of the scrubs of Blackfellow Creek and Comet River.
Lat. 16° 22’ 16" appr.
alligator’s tracks seen by Charley and Brown?
*the 19th June 7m. N 50 W.
caracter of the country the same open forest near the River, flat, very open farther off. The whole country extremely flat- the soil stiff fine deep waterholes.
grevillea with primate leaf and Hakea with long striate ribband like leaf.
*fine long Lagoon gullies 12 m WNW. plains Acacia forest gullies creek
Blue Rawsberry steer killed 16th June 17th 18th.
Bloodwood Humpy bark plains flat country acacia forest
Junction of the Lynd with the Mitchell
15th June first news of the new River
John’s Poney’s death camp
Box tree flats and same undulating country- same form rock cropping out and in those spots considerable number of gullies.- groves of the acacia of Erythrina camp (pod however downy) A new Myrtle in the River.
Lat.16.38 *14th June
the bed of the River which I shall call the Mitchell, if I cannot ascertain wither it is the Nassau or Staaten R. is very broad, free of trees and comes in a strong stream from the ENE and E flowing towards the West WNW, with considerable bent to SW. The immediate banks
f a fine tree vegetation and fine grass (the grass of the Isaacks) farther off the River, the trees get smaller and more scattered until they change into beds of plains with a dry wiry grass on stiff soil, which is limited by [indecipherable] forest of the acacia of Erythrina camp (however with downy pods and probably specifically though slightly different. At the great bents from Southwest to WNW and NW, immensely deep gullies and creeks cut the Berg, which intervenes between river and level land, farther off. At the end of our stage we met with some most magnificent lagoons in part parallel with the River, one of which, at which we camp is very deep, several miles long covered with broadleaved Villarsia and Lotus. In the creek we passed a new Acacia with articulate pods, bipinnate leaves like the brush acacias of Mort Bay.
[river course drawn]
lat.18° 38’ *14th June Blackfellows
double two storied humpies
9m. N 15 W a fine little lake 7 mile from the River
Boxtree flats and some undulating country- the general caracter the same
*13th June – the tree with loose [indecipherable] of seeds- monosperm winged
the country of this side openly timbered appears not different from the left
flats of Boxtree and stringy bark frequently on rocky ground- creeks probably of no great length coming in from SW. big creek from SW rocky country
Lat 16° 55’ 2" rocky country well grassed flats fine lagoon
*12’ June Lepidopteris camp.
creek Big creek Sandstone rocks flat approach the River, which becomes in some parts very narrow.
[River course diagram]
fine flats all along the River timbered with Box Apple gum Bloodwood and occassionally stringy bark well grassed- some dry lagoons
Lat 17*deg; 9’ 17" *10th June
Sword Saw fish camp 16 ducks
the River exceedingly broad, with many channels with main channel running. Boxflats well-grassed of varying extend, interrupted by barren Sandstone and Arkose Ridges covered by Melaleuca scrub.
9 m. NNW
*9th June the vegetation within the River and along its banks the same. Two new little fish observed at the 9th June camp.
10 m. NW
[Read from left to right]
*8 June The vegetation along the banks of the River remains the same
9 m. WNW
the country by far more open, with more extensive flats, prevailing tree Box Sandstone or rather Arkose (big grains of quartz in a clayy paste- white and yellow and red- Well grassed, though the grass is very dry
*7 June Running River camp (Arrowroot camp)
Sandstone rock comes close to the River and forms perpendicular walls on both sides
7 ½ NW by W big creek Sandstone rock
the bed of the river and the interval between it and the sandstone
*6th June geophap’s camp (Bean coffee) Box and ironbark flats
9 W by N. Porphyry very mountaineous and broken country
Kirchners Range a short but very conspicuous range
the flats on both sides of the River are increasing openly timbered
lagoons [indecipherable] creek
*5th June W by N. 9m big creek
*4th June Lat. 17° 34’ 17 “
The country more level or undulating granitic. the River very broad in 3 different channels
the Brunoniacious tree? the clustered fig tree and a Myrtle become very abundant from time to time the banks are still very rocky. Supply of water abundant, grass excellent, though dry.
The Rock is Talkchirte, Sienite which contains much Hornblende and changes over into a Hornblende rock- Every variety of porphyry as pebbles from the gorge.
[River course diagram]
5 m NW
a very mountaineous country through which the River seems to pass into a more level country. the rocks frequently perpendicular approach the banks of the River and its bed is full of them. Rock porphyritic (crystals of quartz and feldspar in a grey paste- on both sides of this mt distr. granitic and pegmatite rock fine water all along this rocky channel.
*3 June Melaleuca gum camp.
The mountains are openly timbered- silverleaved Ironbark prevailing. many interesting trees and plants on the rocks.
limited flats near the river- Boxtree frequent-
Sarcocycholus or zuccorinia
Brunonia tree very abundant- water more frequent- Reeds- a fine Acacia with bipinnate Drooping glaucous leaves
7 ½ N.W. big creek the caracter of the country the same- rocky, hilly, story with several low ranges along at the foot of which Creeks come to the River.
the River divides twice surrounding rocky islands and ridges.
1 June the River full ½ mile broad, its bed dug into many channels sandy and very rocky a porphyritic granite.
the country with granitic ranges- very hilly broken exceedingly rocky and strong. the caracter of the forest and of the River trees Does not change
Country granitic- Mr gilbert found a great extent of basalt at the left side of the River after leaving the camp of the 31 Mai.
45.40 A River coming in from SW WN.W 7 m. large creek with water holes
*Brunonia camp 31 Mai
a reedy creek according to Charley
a rocky country with several NE. ranges from which creeks descend. Soil stiff, very strong teatree thickets and open forest. Boxtree.
river lined with Casuarina, Melaleuca Brunonia? and the oblong downy leaved large tree of the 2 latter very shady)- Applegum.
very water [indecipherable]
Lat.17.54’ 40" * Lions Lost. left it at the
[river course diagram]
*Lions Last.17° 54’ 40"
Range through which the River breaks.
basalt 8 m. NW. Range
gilberts Range of little rugged peaks.
basalt reappearing some limited flats very mountaineous an exceedingly mountaineous broken country Range
8m. W Lat 17° 57’ 52" open forest
Ranges to the North and N East
*23rd Mai 24th Mai Queen’s Birthday camp very broken with granitic Ranges
Granitic country Cypress pine, Broadleaved Silvergum Melaleuca gum, Apple gum, Rusty gum- New Sterculia, Cassia, new Hakea, grevillea, Xylomelum.- lanceolate silver Hakea very frequent
Many high Anthills- Sandy soil. In some spots Arkose.
Lat 17° 52’ 52"
Lat. 18.2’ 22" Basalt Camp on separate creek 20, 21, 22nd Mai
Granitic country with the exception of some spots, where the basalt reappears. Pegmatite and gneiss and porphyritic pegmatite (the cristals of quartz very large) are the principal rocks.
Several new trees make their appearance, particularly a large leguminous tree, a broadleaved tree with half winged and another with winged seeds, Calythrix, the new Cassia.
Pandanus very large and very frequent and a Zuccorinia near the River. the flats all openly timbered, but the greater part of the three stages too rocky and mountaineous for any pastural purpose.
Open forestland very stony and broken by outbreaks of basalt. Basalt
large plain with a little brook without water 8 ½ NNW
several fine though small open plains surrounded by forestland
Basalt native companion plain granitic cont.
[From top of page]
Granitic short Ranges butting out into the tableland
14m. NNW Big swamp granitic
Razorback Mt Lang Blue Mt of the table
little brook coming from a large swamp
country very broken by heaps of Basalt, well grassed
plain coming down from the Razorback Mt
little plain Sandy flat with a great number of big anthills
Silverstriped Silver grevillia stringy bark New gum
Lat 18° 16’ 37" * the 17th 18th 19th Mai Tristania Camp on the Tableland
Basalt Granitic country
This little brook forms the separation between Granite and Basalt.
Continuation of the tableland
*16th Mai granite porphyry
fall of the water
Basaltic tableland most beautiful flats richly grassed, openly timbred-
Silverlea Narrowleaved Ironbark- Bloodwood, sometimes Newgum. the Big anthill creek forms the outline of the tableland.
occassional flats of new gum but generally very broken
flint sandst. Pegmatite and granite
Mountain Range Scrubby with the grevillea with lanceol. silverleaf, new Xylomelum Leguminous shrub with silver leaf
lat.18.32.37 * Whitsun camp
Big anthill creek
the Basalt comes only occassionally on some points over to the left side of the creek- and so the primitiv Rock to the Right. Where these latter are,
th the deep cut gullies break the banks and render travelling very difficult. Biganthill Creek called from the immense structures of the white ant, which abound on the sandy soil, formed by the decomposition of the granite. It is covered lined with oak trees, of fine growth, the lower part without water, the upper part with many fine waterholes, generally rocky, covered with Nymphaea. In all its windings it is about 30 miles long and longer. The whole extent of the right bank available- beautiful for all pasturing purposes.
The Burdekin continues a North North Easterly course according to the Blackfellows, whom it is however difficult to understand.
[From left to right]
*blue Mtain of the tableland Mt Larig.
from the basaltic tableland I traced two streams of lava into the large valley of the Lagoons, both rather more from NW-SE than I have indicated here. In one of these valleys a little reedy brook, the head of which is at a gentle slope of the tableland enters and comes down to the valley of the lagoons, when it follows the outlines of the tableland. The other stream is more to the north and east, enters equally the valley of lagoons and though no water was visible in its imense farago of basaltic rock, it provides probably the lagoons of the valley with its constant water- Several isolated hills of a different rock probably pegmatite and ironbark rise out of the valley of lagoons, the sole of which is filled by the streams of lava.
blue Mtain- NW.
the stream of lava comes rather from here (NW.- stream of lava- head of the reedy brook reedy brook plains forest land basaltic tableland quartzite
fall of the water basaltic tableland with rich grassed open Ironbark forest, beautiful flats and rlight basaltic ridges Basaltic tableland.
Lat. 18.16’.37" fine flats open country richly grassed lagoons
Pegmatite granit- [indecipherable] very scrub coarse sandstone
*Mai 12 – 13.14.15 lagoons Porphyry
10 Mai A quartz quartz on rock- Basalt corner
Land of the Lotophagi – the valley of lagoons – fine flats on both sides of the River quarzon and psamitic Ranges. 4 ½ N 22 E lagoons fine flats on both sides of the River
9 Mai Calo
thannus sternon camp. lake with flocks of pelicans
Stream of basaltic lava into the valley of which the reedy brook enters from the tableland Lat 18° 42’ 9" 4th 5th Mai basaltic tableland 4 m N 55 w
4 ½ N.N.E. Camp of poor Bosstail’s Last At the foot of the Basaltic ridges a fine flat with large lagoons covered with [indecipherable], surrounded by reeds and Plothos.
6 Mai 7 Mai 8 Lat.18.44’ 48" patch of basalt covered with scrub
At the foot of the basaltic tableland pegmatite with granits, leptinite with large elements of quartz and white Mica and granit was met with. Talkchiste appears to have given way to a gneiss rock (a lamellar granit.)
6 m. N. 22 W Basaltic ridges, with flat tops, excellent grass, very openly timbered. very hilly but the hills all open.
Lat.18.50’ 11" * 2 Mai.
Small plains basaltic a large River with a dry sandy bed but occassional waterholes probably basaltic rises many pebbles of Talkchiste and cohite quartz in the River, which is narrow but running very strong
8m. N 44 W open country
Pegmatite undulating fine open country gullies and ridges
Lat 18.55.41 * 2 Mai
singularly broken country, the action of the water having cut the big creek. Boxtree flat a loose loam and [indecipherable] of Iron with many [continued on next page but reads:
pebbles of quartz- small elevations have remained so, having the aspect of spots, where miners have dug for Iron[indecipherable].
mountainous, with a great number of gullies, going down to the Biganthill Creek, whereas the tableland falls steep and with very few gullies to the creek, its principal fall being SW to the valley of lagoons and the River. As the River makes the separation of the geological formations, limiting on its right banks the Basaltic tableland, so the Big anthill Creek does, the left bank being
primitive ( Granit Pegmatite, Porphyry, flint rock-
Whitsunday camp occassionally a coarse sandstone) the right bank the
Basaltic table the River very shallow, very broad, the Bed a large layer of Sand, through which the River in an apparently small channel runs.
quartze Rock forming low ranges, basalt in several points appearing at this side of the River having broken through a Psamitic rock and having changed it into a
vitreous rock with vitreous cassure. the Ranges are all openly timbered, the flats and lagoons with excellent grass and reeds, the River in some parts of the valley of lagoons a simple channel without trees with sharp steep banks- farther on the oaktree very frequent and Calothannus.
[Diagram at bottom of page:]
*many pebbles of Talkchiste and white quorz in the River which is narrow but running very strong 8m. N 40 W open country
Basalt small plains A large River with dry sandy bed but occassional waterholes Basaltic pegmatite undulating fine open country gullies and ridges fine Boxflat Lat. 18.55.41
[River course: from left to right]
Where the Ranges end, flats accompany the River on its left bank until new elevations rise at the end of the journey
large creek N.80° W 5 ½ m. Lat 18° 59’ 11" flat * 30th April 4 ½ m Lat. 18° 58’ 57" 29th April mountain Ranges
longitude 144° 14’ according to two sets of sight which disagree only 2" of time
a big oaktree- creek from the W. with a broad sandy but dry bed.
a fine Boxtree flat along the River interrupted only by 2 creeks, some gullies and at the end of the stage by more broken country.
very mountainous mountains approach the River, the belt of flats along the banks very narrow and cut by many gullies- but everywhere open timber
Lat 19° 1’ 3" * 25, 26, 27 April 28 Little Bawley’s last.
Range of high hills Lat. 19.1.18 the rock composed of subcristalised feldspath. [indecipherable]
*24th April open country but in some parts more gullies
the River splits again into two branches
these Mountain Ranges are composed of Psammite which is frequently fritted. I did not observe igneous rocks, which however very probably burst out occasionally Talkchiste observed in the deep gullies near the River
fine country, well grassed, grass exceedingly thick near the River, though rather dry at present- off the River fine Box flats- some Newgum flats, (in whet seasons swamps)- trees in general of fine growth.
Talkchiste with the accompanying conglomerates and coarse prainites(?) often broken through by Basalt and Porphyry.-
Lat.19.4.41 *23rd April flockpigeon camp
*23rd April flockpigeon camp fine open country N.60° W.
big oaktree creek or gully very fine flats only interrupted by gullies follow each other during this stage
19.11.15 *22nd Apr.
Ranges from S 73° W- N 28°W.
[River course diagram from left to right:]
apparently open Lat 19° 11’ 34" 9 m. West Lat 19.12’ ?"
22 April Blue Mtains camp fine flat openly timbered, well grassed Basalt
the country between the 2 rivers is beautifully open and flat with the exception of a Basaltic ridge near the South River.
21st April Big Mt. camp dry creek 8 m.S 50"W fine flats changing with rocky hills approaching them
Lat 19.9.39 (probably more)
fine flats along the River changing with rocky, often high hills, which approach the River, and often come close to its banks- In the latter case many gullies, and these generally with Vitex scrub
Talkchiste with alternating layers of Sandstone and conglomerate and Puddingstone, often broken by Basalt and by porphyry (quartz porphyry) the strata
st fall in a very steep angle, sometimes they are almost perpendicular, at the camp of the 21 Ap they did strike from SW to W- NE b E. dip NW b. N.
Ranges from S.20° W lone blue Mt to S. 40° W.
*mountainous 20th April fine flat 8 ½ m N 50 “ W.
the mtains covered with silverleaved stunted Ironbark. the
fine flat hilly and gullies along the River
*19th April basalt breaking through sandstone fine flat Ironbark Sandstone forest long range of Mtains fine open flat big creek clay and sandstone Hut
gullies fine open flat
Range of Mtains seem to recede to the westward, with a big creek rising from them undulating clay and sandstone
Lat.19° 18’ 16" * 18th April (17’ camp) Porphyry Range Camp
Rounded conical hills Range of rounded conical hills
the whole country openly timbered 8m N.11° W Ironbark- Newgum pp fine flat, but rotten ground
ridges appear at this side, but all openly timbered
anubranch(?) some gullies
*17th April camp where the stream crosses the Riverbed
3m.N 40° W.
open well grassed country rather rotten ground
[From top of page:]
mountains from W b N
open country more undulating country flat gullies big creek SW by S. 6m.N. 40° W.
Cong 143° 44’
fine flat fritted sandstone
*fritted Sandstone camp limestone hill fritted sandstone and pudding in the River. large creek according to Brown large hill
lagoon (fritted sandstone) limestone limest Vitex scrub open Box and Ironbark flat 9m. N. 10 W fine Box and Ironbark flat
Several ridges on the left side of the River
the whole country open and well grassed
Basaltic ridges with open forest
dyke or wall of flinty red conglomerate across the River from SW-NE.
*Red Rock camp Lat. 19° 41’ 28"
Basaltic ridges sandstone in the River 7m. N. 40° W
sandstone overtopped and changed by basalt
Basaltic Ridges open or with occasional open scrub
Lat 19° 45’ 36" *Lions Return Camp 14th April (13 camp)
Fine Ironbark flat Some ridges appear at the left bank- open country 9 ½ m. N. 60 ° W.
This basaltic ridge or stream extends from between
W and NW- rocks covered with scanty vegetation, few small ironbark trees, stony rocky- the river comes to and off, the sweeps forming very fine Ironbark flats- to the SW. of the dyke basaltic soil frequent red white ant hills; boxtree, open vitex scrub.
Latit. 19. 49’ 41" fine Ironbark flat sandstone with gully covered by basalt a large creek joins the River at the westside of westhill St hill
Ranges and isolated hills to the North and N East.
Westhill camp 13th April (12th camp)
Westhill (NE from the camp)
Apparently open country Basalt covered scrub fine Ironbark flat a field of Basalt Rapids and falls of the River over and between a feldspathic rock
Limestone Basalt limestone senite limestone 12th April camp of the B rocks (11th Camp) open country
The roughness of the fields of Basalt, scantily covered with grass makes our horses and bullocks footsore. Basalt
Small peaks and short Ranges are scattered all over an immense apparently flat country.- This country is open, particularly Narrow-leaved Ironbark the ridges are sound.
Pegmatite hills with white mica in large leaflets.
New gum tree camp 10th camp at the Burdekin fine open country. 11th April
Country getting ridgy and rocky pegmatite some patches of vitex scrub big creek open beautiful country.
Pegmatite granit with inclination to gneiss Rock composed of Hornblende and feldspar. Latit. 20° 5’ 36" (however not long) granite [indecipherable]
Small river from the NE.
10th April Greek camp 9th camp at the Burdekin at the anabranch
Hornblende porphery and Diorite with outbursts of white pegmatite
A beautiful country interrupted however by some very stoney ridges- one of the finest for pasturing, we have travelled over
granitic 8 ½ m. N. 10 W. large creek fine open country S.65° E considerable creek
end of the range bears N.45° E. from the camp.
Thackers Range aparently fine open country
9 April latit 20° 8’ 26" considerable river coming from the SW Ranges
8 camp under the hillocks 9 miles N. 80" W. 8 April
Large creek ridgy and stoney
a feldspathic rock without crystals in the creek
fine open country well grassed a dark rock, containing cristals of feldspar and [indecipherable] of hornblende. Lat. 20.9.11 granitic large creek
I came on the River at about 17° 46’ latitude and perhaps 7-10 miles from the seacoast. It is fine broad
wet channel filled to the even brim, the free banks with a slight, green hedge of rich green stunted mangroves.- Flo direction is from South, a few degrees West to North a few degrees East. It has therefor a course decidedly different from that of those rivers and creeks we have past. The lagoon at which we are camped has is at present very shallow. the blackfellows have dug here after the roots of the Lotus, as the have dug in the dry beds of the creeks we have past after shells and roots.
In approaching and leaving the seacoast we met again with the different belts of Boxtree flats, open Hakea forest, plains, lanceolate teatree thickets, stunted teatree flats of sandy soil with Salecornia and 3 or 4 other remarkable plants of salty ground (of which one Cockade of Bing and one Solanum)-
As we removed from the seacoast the Bloodwood and Pandanus reappeared and the little breadtree became abundant. But the most remarkable change was that from an entirely flat country into an undulating hilly one, the hills formed of Ironstone, the brown pebbles of which covered the ground. No water, no water course, with the exception of some dry waterholes along scrubs.- These hills ressemble very much those of the Lynd before it enters into the flat country.- After 13 miles the first creek, though without water at present.
[Page divided into left and right sections:]
Left side: Lat 17.19.35 * 13th July
the whole country well grassed large
lagoons grassy lagoons dried up very probably very whet in the rainy season. An immense Boxflat of the caracter of former stages interrupted only by some plains scattered over with small trees of Hakea, grevillea, Box, white gum and of those scrubs of stunted teatree, quite caracteristic of the last 2 stages.
11m. S.38W. teatree scrub creek with the blackfellows round gunyas
Lat. 17° 28’. 11" * 14 July teatree scrub creek 15th July 16th July Stay for Roper’s sake
The Caron River without water but with parallel lines of lagoons
Teatree scrub without creek The whole stage a Boxtree and teatree flat and slight rises covered with the scattered stunted trees of Hakea, Rawsberry yam wood, winged seed tree- little Severn tree
*17th July. Train of shallow grassy lagoons with Darnasonium- Cytherea Shells again.
Seacoast succession of plains and open country covered with Hakea- pp. Teatree thickets. Salecornia a plant of Bing (Cockade)
Teatree thickets- flat sandy [indecipherable] of creek with Salecornia pp.
Lat.17° 41’ 52" * 18th July full swan (day of plenty of game)
Shallow grassy lagoons
[Right side from top:]
Lat 17° 0’ 13"
Van Diemens River
Very open forest with small plains and lagoons 5m. S 30° W.
*10th July 11th July Little white ‘steers killing camp
Chain of swampy lagoons with blue red white Lotus
Small river or large creek with broad sandy bed, with steep banks lined with teatree and the Brunoniaceous tree plenty of water, but not running
The whole stage a fine open forest of Boxtree, applegum, white Rusty gums well grassed, well watered
Small creek with fine waterholes, blackfellows fishing.
Boxflats with Hakea pinnatified, grevillea pp and a succession of plains generally extending to the westward
11 ½ m. S. 28° W.
Scrub of the stunted narrow lanceolate melaleuca [indecipherable] shallow sandy watercourses with dried up waterholes.
Lat.17.19’ 36" 13th July teatree creek camp.
Creek of the teatree scrub- one single muddy waterhole
the blackfellows very friendly horses the 5 horses [indecipherable]
6m country of hills *20th Octb Jack Downy Lat.14° 47’
[Left side of page:]
Lat.14° 47’ * 20th Octbr. Small river seen by Brown. Brown saw an alligator and ran down an Emu. We saw Murphy’s new jigsaw.
Rich brush vegetation along the banks- the greenblossomed Vinebean.
Fine open Boxtree country Rawsberry yam 10m N 50° W
Fine long Canyons
a Range of hills all along the left bank of the River with some bluff breaks
the Roper the 19th Octbr.
a fine lagoon with great numbers of geese, dendrocygni black ducks
a fine freshwater River with tide-banks with Pandanus articult. Salt vida, broadleaved [indecipherable], flagelloria the tide 2 ½ ‘
hills and ranges at the right side of the River, at the foot of which probably even more lagoons there than we saw
a kind of flaggy sandstone 4m. N 30 W *18th Octbr 17th Octbr.
fine open plains and Boxflats
plains with Rawsberry yams and Julicornia scrub
hard Sandstone range of hills
a fine Boxtree flat with Pandanus creek, which however gets scrubby lower down Range of hills a fine Boxtree extending to N by E
sandstone and the red Ironstone
scrubby stringybark forest
19 miles NNW.
[Right side of page:]
a big creek without water to the Eastern
Ranges to the NW one behind the other all parallel, all of fritted sandstone all very steep to the S East, all separated by perfect teatree flats- few watercourses and those which exist dry.
Cypress pine thickets and very scrubby Stringybark forest with patches of teatree flats and scrubs- Sandy hills Country undulating.
*Fine waterhole 16th Octbr Cypress pine thickets teatree scrub and forest
Lat.15° 10" * 15th Octbr. No water 1 pony knocked up
teatree scrub Stringybark forest gets miserable in teatree flats
high ranges forming a Buff wall to the S East sloping gently to the NW
a band of green trees particularly legum. tree
teatree flats- open with broadleaved stunted teatree
a big creek sandy without water
richer tree vegetation and pandanus along the ridge
parallel ridges of fritted Sandstone very rocky and steep
[Left side of page:]
N by E. – the Wakham River seems to split in two equal arms
River with a fine broad bed, several channels fresh water in detached pools lined with pandanus and drooping teatree.
*14th Octbr the red kangooroo abundant and first
shot caught with Sprag. The whole stage stony ridges separated by fine open teatree and Boxflats.
Ranges at the opposite side of the River
Some small dry watercourses some scrubby stretches
teatree flats open Box flat Lat 15.29’ freshwater
*13th Octbr 4 conical hills with flat forms
Rocky bar across the river which becomes very broad sandy- but the saltwater stream small
Ranges with a gap the River seems to divide in a west and South branch
[Top of page]: *12th Octbr Lat 15.18’ .2 the Limmer bight pigeon first seen and shot. Charley saw a similar one out on the Macarthur.
freshwater the flats are a fine open country but the hills very rocky, fritted sandstone and indurated clay well stratified dip to the Southward Strike from E. to W.
*4 archers: David John Charles, Thomas
large saltwater River the same which BR and Ch. Saw from the Hill of Start Last
*fine waterhole in a small creek
*11 Octbr Big saltwater creek
scrubby undulating country- alternating teatree flats and the broadstemmed leg. shrub
Range of hills Cytheria creek plains of sand open Ridges Large sandy plains separated by sandy scrub
Range of hills from South to North Big hill
*10th Octbr open Box and Teatree forest Dendrocygni camp pandanus forest and swamp Stringy bark Ridges Scr ubby
Large sandy plains separated by sandy scrub
*Stars last 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th Octbr. Lat. 15.14’
fresh water higher up- running
SW. Swamp of Bangwall
Supposed Big River seen by Brown and Charley
the country still scrubby and miserable on the ridges, sandy Tulicornia [?] and Ironstone plains along the creek and River and where inferior creeks enter into the basin of the River. farther on to the second Range improving, some swamps with groves of Pandanus and Tristania, other Bangwall Swamps out of which a fine chain of lotus ponds at one of which we are encamped. Country densely inhabited by Blackfellows, few of which however we saw
The Second Range quartzite or fritted sandstone again- Intervening Ironstone Ridges.
[Left side of page]: Brown and Ch. saw from this hill the sea and an island and a big River.
quartzite Mountains many flat terminations of saltwater creeks covered with stunted teatree.
*6th Octbr creek with brackish water.
The miserable scrub continues over this two stages- *5 Octbr the seacoast
*3rd Octbr 4th Octbr good waterholes.
Continuation of scrubby country which is however well watered
6 ½ m. N 10° W several small watercourses.
Lat.15.25.18. * Octbr
[Top central part of page]: *2nd Octbr. Pandanus creek brackish water lower down cytheria, head of an alligator.
Shallow teatree basins
the whole stage of the same caracter as the preceding, rather worse. the prickly pink grevillea first seen
1st Octbr. The Red kangooroo killed a fine lagoon a river with very broad sandy bed, 2 channels broad middle [indecipherable] fine supply of water which just has ceased running
The whole stage a vile scrubby country Stringybark forest with the broadstemmed leg. shrub, Cypresspine and Acacia and teatree thickets
15.47.33. *30 September
[Right side of page]: this creek becomes more open- fine forest.
Herintin very frequent laden with green seed vessels- both species- *camp
Cypress pine thickets and teatree forest and scrub.
Lat.15.47.33 *28th Sept 29th Sept 30th Sept. good sized creek Herculia Waterless creek
The whole stage Stringybark forest in part very scrubby with the broadstemmed leguminous shrub unders[indecipherable] Stringy bark partly teatree thickets and flats- Pandanus near the creeks
Pandanus creek gets very rocky a big creek with fine waterholes covered with Lotus
*the 26th Septbr polygonium holes surrounded by teatree
open country teatree forest and Boxflats with patches of Scrub and the forest intermixed with Bloodwood
sandstone peat small plains Pandanus fine open country
Lat.16.5.26 * plains
The enlarged bed of the River with the vegetation of the Lynd and with alligators- the banks accompanied by fine plains- Red kangooroos
some parts of the left side appeared rather scrubby.
Drunier knocked up. *21st Septbr camp at the Macarthur or Umara without fresh water 5m S SW
Saltwater River perhaps the largest and deepest we have seen The macarthur or Umara (if this word given by the blackfellows is the name of the river, probably not.)
large hollows along the River without water
open fine country- Box and gum cypress pine
fine open country along the River. 7m. Scoby S.
the drooping leg. tree the pinnate whitebarked tree the rough fig tree. Herculia frequent, often socially forming almost forests.
sandstone hills horizontal strata, deep fissures
bloodwood Pandanus and Mangrove Myrtle
22nd Septb 23rd Septbr 24th Septbr. 25th Septbr. started 26th
15m. N. 50° W
About 4 -5 miles from the camp we met with a tribe of blackfellows, with whom we had a parley and exchanged presents- circumcised, welllooking but slim.
*a fine creek with a chain of deep pools, just ceased running. 200 [2000?] miles below the camp Saltwater- Alligators
20th Septbr. teatree stringybark forest a dry swamp melaleuca thicket surrounding swamos stringybark forest
scrubby creek some small plains fine open country
19th Septbr. * Zamia forest the Robinson cypress pine thickets and scrub bank very broken alligator ford
Teatree flats- in part fine open country, in part scrubby 6m ½ N 85° W
boxflats Zamia and Pandanus allways mixed with the forest of Bloodwood new gum
a bigger River from the westward according to Charles
Saltwater River the Robinson
saltwater and Salicornia [indecipherable] heads of creeks
some plains Zamia groves with white gum bloodwood
15th Septbr well of the natives 4m N 25 S teatree forest
6 ½ SW [indecipherable] of Zamia groves
*15th Septbr Zamia groves Cypress pine thickets come on a blackfellows path
*16th Septbr at night 17th Septbr 18th Septbr the water is not running the pool immediately above the saltwater very slightly brackish- our camp at a rocky lagoon above the last saltwater at the left side of the creek
5m. blackfellows path going from Zamia grove to Zamia grove, until I had to leave it.
Patches of thicker timber with Zamia (Cycas)
Fine open boxflats 15.N’ 25 W. thick scrub about 5 miles beautifully open well grassed country
Big saltwater river the 7 Emu River cypress pine thicket teatree forest fine open well grassed country many Emus- 7 killed saltwater creek cypress pine thicket, fine cypress pine
Fresh water stream
*14 Septbr well of the natives tide coming up the bed grows very broad
*13th Septbr a fine pool of fresh water surrounded by polygonium at the head of the creek
10m. N 50° W fine creek with lotus lagoon
Creek with brackish water cypress pine Lat. 10° 11’ Underwood formed by Acacia shoals teatree thickets pandanus disappointment creek pool of brackish water
*11th Septbr Teatree forest and scrub
12th Septbr blackf. wells scrubby stringybark creek
Cypress pine thicket scrubby stringy bark forest cont 10 m. N.W by W.
the whole place was a succession of Teatree and cypress pine thickets and scrubs, only interrupted by the banks of the lotus creek which were open, and by some limited open country scattered over with Hakeas and the little Severn tree.
the greater part of the creeks we past, are accompanied by small groves of Pandanus, or by Pandanus scattered over the teatree flats. the scrub generally recedes as the creek becomes broader- the creeks appear to be richer in water higher up, where they are more rocky. At the 12th Septb we had to dig a waterhole, but the supply of the moist sands was abundant. the natives have been here very lately, making their Pandanus harvest. the heaps of seed vessels of that fruit are lying about in their camps.- the immediate neighbourhood of disappointment creek is well grassed.
Stringy bark forest 5 m NW by N stringy bark forest scrubby fine creek with water
Lat. 16 flat * 10th Sept fine creek with pools of water
Some flats of the little fever tree
Scrubby undulating Stringy bark forest with the leg. shrub with winged stem
drop of water cypress pine forest in patches. Encocarpus Califolia grevillea Calythrix, 2 unknown shrubs rocky sandstone ridges covered with scrub, open Box forest, stringy bark
Lat. 16.28’ 57"
a big saltwater River the Abel Tasman banks well grassed fine Bloodwood gum and stringy bark
The bed of the river enlarges higher up, several channels filled with shingle and several shrubs, the water fresh, running strong over a rocky bed, 3’ deep about 15-20 yards broad- the whole bed nearly 300 yards
*9th Septbr stringy bark forest sandstone hills, Sandstone in flags horizontally stratified, whetstones.
creek with fresh water 6 m. NW. new bloodwood costati seedvessel little acacia shrub Scrubby stringy bark forest very sandy 16.31’
the Calvert fine teatrees on the bed of the River, which is well supplied with water
*scrubby 8 Septbr. dense underwood of grevillea and several acacias scrub scrub
N. 40° W open ridges of hard sandstone covered with stringy bark- some patches of Box, Apple gum
Emu chased Pandanus and Bloodwood scrubby stringy bark forest big creek 16° 35’
*7th Septbr. scrubby 1 ½ mile NW.
Distant blue Range nearest horseshoe range
the Abel Tasman and the Saltwater River unite lower down to all probability. the abel Tasman has a much more northerly course, than I have indicated here
7m. NW fine open undulating stringy bark forest with outbreaks of fritted Sandstone
scrubby stringy bark forest
*fine teatrees River with running water (water channel 3 yards- from bank to bank 300 yards) the Van Alphen
6th Septbr Reduced tea camp. broadleaved teatree forest very fine teatrees, the largest we have met (perhaps a new species)
scrub, reaches of stringy bark forest teatree thickets and dry teatree swamps
12 m NW. Pandanus and bloodwood forest and scrub
The orange and dwarf grevillea the Proteaceous plant with rather fleshy foliate leaves Pultenaea with leaflike branches- acacia- verticordia? Calythrix a high shrub and small tree.
Lat. 16° 48’ 22" *fine open country Pandanus very frequent- the pinnate tree of the Saltwater. red blossomed Mangrove.
Saltwater creek fordable- Mangroves
5th Septbr. Saddlebag camp.
A large piece of porphyry in the blackfellows camp. fine open forest fine sandy creek with Pandanus open forest stringybark forest rather scrubby
Wentworth creek. Well wooded country Bloodwood apple gum drooping tree a big creek with fine pools of water a little creek
4th Septbr. a piece of granite and broken fortification again
Plain fine open country boxflat 11m. WNW saltwater creek 25 yards broad with pools of saltwater scrubby country saltwater creek 30 yards broad fordable scrub.
Anserine camp. *3th Septbr. plenty of water lower down
[from left to right:]
Anserine camp *3 Septbr fine lagoons with good water sheets of brackish water with geese and ducks very distinct blackf. path
pand. creek Lat. 16.54’ 50"
The country intervening between creeks a fine open Teatree forest. Along the creeks scrubs of the leguminous shrub with winged stem and branches.
*2 Septbr very brackish ferruginous water- Brown is mistaken for a wild blackfellow.
sheets of sand and sandy basins the heads of Saltwater creeks lined with mangroves
a saltwater creek shallow, fordable blackf. smoke supposed bigger saltwater river into which all the creeks to the right went
undulating country- open covered with low teatree shrubs- sheets of sand with Salicornia at the heads of Saltwater creeks hills covered with low shrubs blackf. path
Lat 16. 54. 57 * 30 Aug. fine waterholes 31st Aug. 1st Septbr.
low scrub with Salicornia scrubby
[Left side of page:]
*29th Aug good supply of slightly brackish water.
the [indecipherable] supposed to be the Van Alphin of the map
8m. NW. country a little more open but not withstanding one continuous Teatree scrub. blackfellow path to N by East. saltwater creek
17.2’ 12" 28th Aug. slightly brackish water.
most miserable bleak teatree scrub 11 m NNW.
Lat. 17.11.9 * 27th Aug. teatree scrub 7m NNW
[Right side of page:] melaleuca forest and scrub
Lat.17° 39’ 17.25’. * 28th Aug. camp of the yellow lagoon 5 moth’s creek
25th Aug waterless camp at a little River
swampy plain teatree swamp melaleuca forest scrub scrub
16 N 30° W creeks according to Calvert all dense scrub
melaleuca forest saltwater 2 miles down
*22 23 24} Aug 17° 39’
Scrub ch. well *22 Aug. Moonlight creek
23rd Aug. Lunar observat. at. 17° 39’ Long 137° 48’
water all one mass of scrub
the only creek we past 16.12 NW
*20th Aug. waterless scrub camp a long [indecipherable] of the Nula Nula shrub Scrub of Seventree and Melaleuca 14m. N 50° W.
plain Seventree scrub plain Boxflat
Return camp 21st Aug. *chain of lagoons a river with a broad bed, though filled with large trees- running water
17° 54’ plain
a fine running rivulet about 2-2 ½ yards broad- Perch.
*19th Aug Lat. 17° 56 *18th Aug. plain gullies a small river with Palmtrees, Pandanus freshwater plains casuarina scrub
*17 Aug. 17° 51’ plains
plains 5 m NW 5 SW plain
17.51’ *18th Aug fine waterhole
blackfellows smoke plain creek lined with rawsberry yam 7 m NNE
little drops of water in fine waterholes
the plains along the creeks seem to stretch very far to the northward- none of the creeks which we crossed and saw at the Westside joining the other at the extend of at least 7 miles.
plain * 6th Aug. camp without water plain plain 12m. WNW
boxflats- bordering plains to the Southward
hollows between plains, without a decided watercourse, with many shallow dry waterholes, filled with rawsberry yam scrub, without doubt the heads of creeks, which rise from the northern side of the plains, the Southern side being apparently immense Boxflats, very openly timbered and beautifully grassed, but probably with a small supply of water in the dry season of the year
saltwater according to Charley.
*15th Aug. little pool of water bullocks go back. plains a good sized creek without water 8. NNW plains plain
creek with fine water lined by a band of forest the broadleaved creek creek, upon the seeds of which the black cockatoe feeds the rawsberry yam, the box
17.57. *8 August
Emu plains Lat. 18° 4’ 27" 10th Aug. Timmy bogged
11th Aug. Attempt to get him out.
12th. Aug Kill him
13th Aug dry his meat
14th Aug. 4 Emus killed
plains with abundance of Emus (3 brought in by Ch. Br and John)
Immense flocks of the small white cockatoe. brackish water
Immense plains extend to the Southward, even Charley’s eye can not see their limits the River full of fish but saltwater a rocky bar permits us to cross
*9 Aug 3 waterholes camp some ridges of Ironbark forestland blackfellows smoke and no water
creek with waterholes 3 Emus caught (Ch. shot 2)
plains interrupted by narrow bands of forest the plains full of irregular torn melonholes which [indecipherable] the travelling difficult and fatiguing
10m. 5 80° W.
[From left side of page:]
The fig tree, the white cedar the guavalike tree- A fine stiffleaved convolvulus.
along the River plains change with the gumtree forest and broken ground some by watercourses- lagoons at several intervals but all dry.
A big saltwater river with steep banks full of water, scanty hedge of Mangroves banks in general naked
A fine large polygonium lagoon Salicornia and Rawsberryyam tree all around
*4 August. 5 Aug kill blackbird
plain boxflats plains and scrubby ridges
WNW. 10m. changing with each other
Pandanus creek with fine waterholes surrounded by the new flooded gumtree
a small polygonium lagoon at which we started a camp of natives
Lat. 17° 57’
*6th Aug. 7 Aug. stop to dry our meat.
plains and Ironbark ridges mangrove creek E 20 S.
very rocky and with many gullies covered with Rawsberry yam Scrub
*8th August. Sida camp about 50 miles west of Muete Suyker R.
ridges with rusty gum A scrubby gum of very green and pleasing foliage covers some of the ridges. It forms an open forest, well grassed, but the grass is stiff and wiry. A new Acacia very frequent.
The scrub in part composed of a little tree with blunt elongate spatulate leaf, and
alate or rather seamed seeds, full of fine transparent [indecipherable] gum.
ridges of ironstone changing with Boxflats, the former however prevailing, the latter with melonholes and rotten
fine plain Boxflat ironbark ridges covered with scrub and stunted Ironbark
Lat. 18° 0’ 42"
[From left:] Lat. 18° 0’ 42" the 2 August. fine lagoons saltwater with deposits of fine salt creek with teatree and commencing waterholes
ironbark ridges 12m. N 55° W broadleaved Ironbark Ridges Boxflat
fine lotus lagoon parallel to a big creek
*1 August very open Ironbark (broadleaved) forest.
N 70 ° W. 7 m.
intervening flats with Box and the white watergum
Ironbark Ridges ridges to the Southward
Lat. 18° 6’ 42" ridges and ranges
*31st July 10m. west. broadleaved Ironbark ridges
plain broad silverleaved Ironbark ridges forest Box forest sloping to the plain an immense plain broad silveriron bark ridges creek
blackfellows smoke ridges and ranges to the Southward
2 Aug. the greater part of this stage dreary waterless ironbark ridges, with the brown Ironpebble
a fine grained but and Ironsandstone cropping out everywhere. The grass poor, except near the creeks which are accompanied by small flats and lined with that white gum, which occupies the place of the flooded gum. These creeks all waterless, but at the foot of the hills waterholes, dry at present, though probably filled by every shower for a long time of the year.
In the Boxflat Hakea frequent, the tree with winged seed of the upper Lynd at the ridges, the little Seventree and a small rather shrubby gumtree, the broadleaved and middle size leaved Melaleuca equally frequent.
The country becomes more undulating, the low Ironsandstone ridges covered with the broadleaved Silver ironbark, Hakea of Kents lagoon pp. the slopes towards the plain with Box and a species of white gum. The creek at which we are encamped and where we found the little black urchin, is lined
is with the broadleaved Creektree of the Upper Lynd and a species of white gum which seems to take occupy the place of the flooded gum, but it has a more drooping foliage with narrower leaves and of a more tender verdure, allmost like [Indecipherable].
On the plains which have entirely the caracter of those of [Indecipherable], covered with Ironsandstone pebbles and pieces of fine grained flaggy sandstone, the Acacia farnesiana of the Downs grows frequently. That gumtree, or what tree it is, with a white bark, which I met on the ridges between Yappas creek and waterless camp growth here again on the Ironbark ridges. The plains are very well grassed and the country where plain and ridges unite as near the creek has a pretty appearance even now; it must be beautiful, when all the grass is young and green.- The gumtree which I mentioned beforehand clusters round the waterholes parallel to the creek as well as along the creek. the latter is without water,- Change of wind from the NE to North to N West.
[Left side top of page:]
18° 2’ *28th July.
fine waterholes where we met a tribe of fishing blackfellows.
Rawsberry yam and Boxforest mor. B. Ash. Bloodwood plains
Lat. 18° 2’ forest *29th July plains the forest begins to extend farther off the creek
probably the head of the saltwater creek where we found the salt deposit the 26th July
7 ½ broad Ironbark ridges Psammitic or clayy rock blackf. Smoke blackf. sm. *30th July. fine waterhole the broadleaved creektree of the upper Lynd frequent Box an immense plain 10m. long in the direction W. 20° S.
patches of forest blackfellows smoke forest
[Right side lower from the top:]
big saltwater creek black [indecipherable] shot
broad sheet of water (Sea according to Charlie) saltwater shallow saltwater course strips of wood
big saltwater creek saltwater creek hilly wooded with stunted bigleaved Ironbark and drooping [Indecipherable] Hakea dry marshes surrounded by Salicornea immense plain with fine grass at the salt creek Salicornia and Binos Amaranthus
Lat. 17. 48’ * 24th July * 26th 27th July return camp Muete Suyker R?
Lat.17. 54 big saltwater creek saltwater creek hilly wooded with stunted trees 25th 26th July
In this creek we found the richest deposit of fine white Salt.
Mangrove creek smoke of blackf. Rawsberry yam forest
12 ½ m. N N E immense plain plains plains forest accompanied w a salt water creek with salt deposit plain
fine salt water * 28th July
Rakaloe’s sanguinea first seen the 25th July in the morning.
the plains become larger and larger with a course N 60° W and even Nth. – only strips of scanty forest were seen here and there. they were well grassed in the middle and to say so on their table; but when they declined to saltwater creeks of different size sands with the caracteristic patches of Salicornia made their appearance and a low stunted forest of Rawsberry yam wood of the freshwater lagoons and marshes which must cover during the rainy season a considerable extent of country were dried up, their bed covered with dry grass, their limits by salicornia Shrubs. Towards the end of the stage low Ironstone ridges with immense quantities of white anthills, with stunted broadleaved Ironbark trees The [Indecipherable] drooping Hakeas (in blossom)- as I continued to the westward white sands as the low extends of the coast appeared again, from the camp without water we went to a Saltwater creek with the most abundant deposit of fine white salt in big lumps or broadly cristallised over the whole bed of the creek, which was only filled in patches with water- no freshwater no where-
the course of the 27th 28th must have been considerably more to the westward, making a smaller difference of latitude
Muete Suyker River.
*24th July freshwater lagoon, many native companions
Muete Suyker River?
a fine broadwater with a sandy bed, the banks with stunted mangroves, clayy, saltwater blackfellows fishery at the ford. Rawsberryyam trees forming a small forest at its banks. Salicornia, Binos Amaranthaeious plant, salt tanks. Blackwinged pelican.
plain 6m. N 50° W patches of open forest plain many emus. patches of open forest.
Lat. 17. 49’ 35" *23rd July fine Polygonium lagoons with swarms of duck (Malacoranchus membr.) and teal
an immense plain about 5 miles broad and out of the reach of the eye to the N East. Smoke all about at the horizon
Lat 17° 50’ 28" Blackfellow smoke fine Polygonium lagoons
*22nd July big plain camp. an immense plain 3 miles broad extending far beyond the eye to the Northward well grassed, the grasses soft, not like the stiff grass of the plains near the seacoast.
Box and Melaleuca flats- plains to the Northward N.60° W 8 ¼ m.
Psammite flags. Boxflats severntree scrub
Big plain River or creek with saltwater, rocky in places very deep, but fordable about 3 miles South from the last camp.
Lat. 17° 52’ 53" * 21st July watercamp. more broken country Severntree scrubs 2 m. NE.
Psammitic sandstone and Ironsandstone gets open grass tree, articulate acacia, but dry 2m. N 70° W
*20th July. waterless camp 13.due W. creek with teatree scrub
undulating, hilly country, the hills composed of Ironsandstone, the brown pebbles of which cover the ground. the top of the hills fine open with Applegum, and a new species of white barked tree with opposite leaves, the foot surrounded by almost a thicket of the little severntree, the hollows and flats intervening with a clustered Box, with the middleleaved Melaleuca and with Scrubs of stunted teatree, winged seed tree. A fine drooping Acacia, resembling that of the Erythrina camp.
Yappar [Yasspar?] creek slightly salty where we crossed.
[Extreme right side of page from the top:]
lat. 17° 41 52" *18th July stunted teatree scrub creek with salt water, sandstone bed creek with a rocky bed broadleaved teatree forest, bread tree and Rawsberryyam tree open boxtree forest
*19th July 250-300 yards broad river fine saltwater little bread tree 5 m. S 15° fine lagoons under the rocks of sandstone hills; Boxflats along the Saltwater creek, pandanus and Bloodwood appear again
cross Yappar creek
[A page has been pasted into the document here- it appears to be a collection of aboriginal words plus some mapping]
ynurrung small kangaroo
kalgun another Kangaroo
parrunga (Dennis) Pai (Billy)
Casuarina thickets Ironbark thicket Open forest scrub
6 hours a 2 ½ mile
scrubby forest casuarina Ironbark Ironbark Box Cypressgum scrub
[Page pasted over as before with mathematical calculations]
[Reverse side of another page]
4th April * Camp at the Burdekin white granite and sianitic Rock in the River
carbonate of lime found cristallised (probably from a vein in the granite
white granite open narrowleaved Ironbark forest sandy soil (with mica)
lat. 20° 31’ 20" 3 April *2nd camp at the Burdekin
granite in fine varieties, particularly Sienite a red and white one- Psammites and feldspathic rocks changed by igneous rocks (gilberts big hill the hills abrupt, with blocks strangely heaped and rugged crests.
the open forest which covers the hills is the narrowleaved and silverleaved Iron bark Rusty gum, the Acacia of Erythrina camp, the Bloodwood New gum.- the timber is weak the soil is stoney.- the new tree of the Suttor.
lat. 20°. 37’ 13" 2th April *1st camp at the Burdekin the Burdekin running stream open country rather hilly open hilly country many gullies near the River N. 15 E. 5 ½ m.
hilly and mountainous country on both sides. deep gullies at the banks some indications of brush the fig tree, the native acacia
Macdonnels Mt. and Range high conspicuous isolated mt.
Lat.20.41.35 Long. 145° 58" (146° 1’) * Snowballs last from friday the 29th to tuesday April 2th. open country
Considerable creek large swamp sandstone hill with pandanus and a new Prot. tree well adapted for sheep and cattle. fine open timbered undulating and hilly country N. 20 E. 7 m. apparently open country
Lat. 20.47.34 *Junction camp decomposed granit in the bed of the River leaflets of Mica
[Radiating notes at top right:] N & E a nearer Range
N 15 Ea still more dist. Range
N. 25 E highest point of a distant Range
bearing of a blue distant Range N. 45° E
bearing of a fine peak N. 52° East
the little hill between the 2 and 3rd camp
Mt. Maconnel is composed of a kind of Domite [Dolomite?] (feldspathic- cellular rock, as if exposed to younger igneous rocks), through which a fine
Sienite seems to have burst (?) the latter is
at found in the subordinate ridges round the mountain. In the Burdekin I find pebbles of quarz, of granite, of Sienite of Porphery ( fine fleshcoloured crystalls of feldspar and cristalls of quarz in a greyish and yellow paste. Besides these there are pebbles of slate or a kind of dark clayrock. The general caracter of the Burdekin is the same as that of the lower Suttor. Melaleuca lines the bed and the watercourses- the bed is perhaps a mile broad: the crabmarks 15-20’ high. A calabash as it came from the vine and big reeds have been brought down by the River.
Rusty gum and silverleaved Ironbark flats
*Function camp 27th March
perhaps from peak Range large River from SW b. W open country
open hilly and undulating country [Indecipherable] m. N 20 ° E
Lat. 20° 53’ 42" 26th March Riflebird camp
moreton bay ash on the flats of the River
undulating and ridgy. Rusty gum and fissured Box- Sandstone generally fritted
teatree in fine specimens 8m. N. 15’ W
East creek seen by Charley
25th March . imperfect observation of Lat. gave 21° 3’ 1" * Limestone camp fritted sandstone large West creek teatree
Limestone 9m. NNW Limestone hill
undulating and ridge openly timbered country very stony- some patches of open scrub apparently openly timbered undulating and ridgy country
24th March * Sienite camp
from this hill ridges and low ranges are seen to the Westward. A blue Range stretches from N by W – NW.
*24th March a transformed puddingstone
Conspicuous hills to the East of North granite ranges with one marked hill
8 ½ m. N 50 W fine grassy well watered broad River bed, parallel lines of lagoons
a creek from the west Sienite fine open gravel ridges Silverleaved Ironbark
these ridges are composed of a kind of Psammite, as it were penetrated by Silica and very hard. It crops out everywhere the sharp pieces strewed over the gnd and cutting the horses hoofs
the 23rd March * Easter Sunday camp open ridges
a large creek joins the Suttor from SSE
the country opens more and more Sandstone (at one place Quarzite)
22nd March lat. 21° 25’ 0- *Talkchiste camp
Talkchiste crops out Boxflats 6 m. N.
open scrub- the boxflats on each side of the River become opener the River splits several times almost entirely into a number of melonholes
21st March *good friday camp. Lat. 21° 31’ 16"
9 miles N 10° W scrub
20 March. Lat. 21° 32’ 40" * Bandikut camp plenty of water torn irregular Boxflat N. 58° W. 9 miles.
fissured and scaly Bricklow scrub or rather bricklow forest
*Bigwater camp 19 March Lat.21° 37’ 31.
the Sienite contains almost as much Mica as Hornblende.
the first part of the road most beautifully watered, plenty of ducks. the water ceases at once and from 2 miles to 2 ½ miles large waterholes remain with very poor dry feed around them. the whole road scrubby.
the River divides into many channels, deep waterholes everywhere, surrounded by narrowleaved Melaleuca hedges. the Bricklow forest rather ridgy- sandstone and loose quarz pebbles, the part nearest to Bandikut camp beautifully watered. We did not see such water since we left the Dawson.
[From left side:]
*Bigwater camp 19 March Lat.21.37’ 31"
open timbered fine plain Country fine open ridges gilberts scrubby hill
9m. N. 80° W. scrub with 2 species of bricklow
igneous rock containing micah from open ridge
*Blackfellow store camp 17 March 18 March
9m. North-west 5° S.
15 March Sunday 16 March. flintrock?
*Datura camp Lat.21.39.58. probably open country. undulating country
12m W 30° S. Sandstone B.B.flats Sandstone
flintrock lookout hill flintstone ridges with silverleaved Ironb. very stunted belt of scrub 8 miles W. narrow belt of open flat water water pegmatide
*gilberts Birthday camp 14th March
*Lat 21° 26’ 36" 13th March Ruellia camp pegmatide
Lat.21° 22.36 12th March *1st Camp on the River Suttor the River Suttor with fine large reedy waterholes silverleaved Ironbark rather scrubby ridges 6m SSW Scrub W by N 12 miles 12 miles Downs surrounded by Scrub
large creek from NW with pebbles of pegmatide Flintrock Suttors Creek with Casuarina Whipsnake camp
*3th camp at Suttors Creek Sunday 9th March 10th March 11th March a fine greenish Sandstone in the bed of the creek Scrubby patches more frequent
Saturday 8th March *2th camp at Suttors creek Box and Ironst. ridges
Easterly Mt Ranges N 55W 7 miles
*7 March first camp at Suttors creek
the Majoran gives the most exquisite perfume to the air all along Suttors creek
Friday 7th March * first camp on Suttors creek
B Box flats Ironbark slopes belts of scrub
the ridges thickly covered with quarz pebbles which make our bullocks footsore Suttors creek fine open timbrd Ironbark slopes
direction of the hills Emu [indecipherable] Head of the Isaacks deep gorge overgrown with Karree
*Smooth tailed wallobi camp 4 March 5 March 6 March
long stretched swelling hill Range
fine open country changing with plains and Downs long stretched swelling hills
*Lumbago camp 1 March 2 March 3 March Sund. Mond.
fine narrowleaved Ironbark forest and B. Box flats
*Skull camp the Isaacks
Long. 148° 56’ lat. 21 42 27 febr 28 febr *Skull camp a loose sandstone in Skull creek, fine trunks of fossil trees. concretionary limestone
wells of natives native wells
25 febr 26 febr * Thunderstorm waterholes native wells
24th of octb [?] * Crimsonwinged parrot camp
Bastard Box flats with sound ground and narrowleaved Ironbark with rotten ground though rich grass- either joining the River or separated from it by a belt of Bricklowscrub.
As cloudy weather made it impossible to
observe make out the latitude, I supposed 22° 42’ to be the lat. of the place. It could only be little out. the longitude was calculated on one set of sights, which I cannot consider very favourable as clouds passing the moon and rain prolonged it considerably. But according to my day book, I cannot be very wrong, as we travelled very probably 36 miles to the Eastward, along Hugh’s creek and the Isacks.
24 febr * Crimsonwinged parrot camp Basalt ridges
Ranges to the left of the River 8-10 miles distant
Lat.22° 5’ 53" 23rd febr. a large creek from the South
*fusanus camp ridges open forest flats
fine B.B flats open flats partridge pigeon creek
latitude 22° 11’ 1" *partridge pigeon camp or Reunion camp 21st febr 22nd febr. Sandstone wherever seen in or near the River. undulating patches of scrub and open forest all Briklow scrub the Isaacks
[indecipherable] Peak and Range fine open country along the River. Belts of scrub separating it from an opentimbered undulating country
reconnoitre with Roper fine flat open country B. Box Ironbark and the New gum Hughs creek
the 15th febr. 16- 17-18. 19 20 *Bawleys Last or separation camp
according to Mr gilbert 4 large creeks from the North according to Mr Roper one large creek from the South between Bawleys last and 7 miles further down
[note at top right reads:] crimsonwinged parrot camp 8
Camp at the waterholes filled by the thunderstorm 16. NNW
Native skull creek camp. 12 NNE- NNE
[sketch] the needle due west
*second camp on the Hughs * reconnoitre without tea tombstone creek Lat.22.23’ *11th febr first camp on the Hughs an extensively flat country with ironbark B.Box and New gum
10th febr * Bitter camp melaleuca new species sandstone ridges running out into the flat 2 Emus killed Sandstone Ranges with scrub and grasstree and Ironbark slopes.
8th 9th febr. *Phillipps Mt. camp fine open country between the Sandst. Ranges and the Peak Range. Sandst. Range fine extension Bast. Box flats very scrubby high Sandst. Range Phillipps Mt.
Lat. 22° 32’ 27" febr. 7th * Rusty gum camp pebbles of concretionary Limestone in the creek
Sandst. Ridges Ironbark slope plains Campills peak plains
febr 6th * Vitex camp plains coming from the peaks, ridges with Bast. Box
Sandstone Ridges with Sandst. Scrub Ironbark slopes
*Calverts Plain Camp Lat.22.43 5th febr
12th Jan * camp on the Hughs. Crow camp 13th Jan. stopd.
Calverts Peak S 23° W Mt Macarthur S. 15. West. Scotts Peak 8.7 East
Lat. 22. 43 february 5th *Calverts Plain camp Sandstone ridges Boxtree forest
plain scrub Sandstone Ridges fine green forest and plains
*last point re cormiston Basaltic ridges
*Rocky Basin camp
Peak range a succession of fine peaks the Dome Calverts peak Scotts peak [Indecipherable] peak Scrub Johns red mountain
large plains reconnoitre woodland myal plains
Macarthurs peak plains with basaltic ridges open forest with lawns coming down from the mountains
Phillipps Mt. Mt. Lowe scrub
Peak Range Downs
Lat. 22. 58. 54 Jan 27th Monday *Peak Range Camp. camp of the Crimson fields
Longit. 148° 19’ (19’) 27th Wednesday *Return Camp
148° 19’ 30" plenty of water small plains with blacksoil separated by stripes of sandy Ironbark forest beautifully grassed
ascent to the tableland fine flats along the creek scrub scrubby ridges
My dead reckoning brings me 45 miles farther to the westward from compared with my longitude
Jan 25th Sunday *Newmans grove flats of blackbutted gum Sandstone scrub
ridges with Sandstone scrub ranges with sandstone veget. narrowleaved Ironbark Range
Mt Loth west.
Sandstone (Mtains of Red calvert)
Domite (the similarly Dome shaped Mts of whitish colour.)
Basalt containing large quantities of Chalcedony the plains full of silicified fossil wood, breaking like asbest.
Through the observations of Longitude were made only with one Sextant, the two sets were taken on two successive days the 31st Jan and the 1st february and the calculations gave only a difference of 18" which under the existing circumstances and for our purposes may be considered very trifling.
The flats and slopes which accompany these creeks are beautifully grassed, very open and even provided with good narrowleaved Ironbark trees. The only objection is the rotten state of the ground, which is inhabited everywhere by the funnel ant.
[From top left:]
Range fine open country beautifully grassed but very rotten NE peak from where I took bearing road of the bullocky
*Emu camp Jan. 25th
west hill well grassed hollows go down both flats
ridges with patches of scrub, but generally B. Box Narrowleaved ironbark gum
3 proteae. pp. [Indecipherable]
extensive flats rotten ground large reedy creek with casuarinas
Bast. Box flats commenced
*Honey camp Jan 24th.
B.B. ridges plains scrub scrub with Plain a fine view of the Peak Range
creek plain tea dense scrub
*waterless reconnoitre camp ridges with bastard box and Shrubs open ridges of silverleaved Ironbark and blackbutted gum
*Camp at the plains beautiful open country Sandstone hill the only landmark beautiful open country
Lat. 23° 11’ 31" Jan 23rd scrub Scrubby Country
division of waters scrub
Sandstone with a great quantity of fossil wood changed into Limonite and Silicaified
Jan. 20th *Spirit camp course of the River according to blackfellows open undulating country narrowleaved Ironbark and B. Box vitex scrub open patches of Bast. Box vitex scrub hills with silverleaved ironbark
my last at the Mackenzie scrub creek water open Bricklow scrub with a watercourse sandstone scrub Cliff gully
basaltic dyke intercepting the River
Lat. 23° 21" 30 *Redmonds last Jan
15 16, 17,18 19th
*Camp at the green waterhole Jan 15 beautiful bastardbox flats
*Coal camp Jan 14
*Coalcamp Jan. 14 cliff with sandstone and coal creek coming in opposite the course of the River flagstone creek with impressions of fernleaves
Lat. 23° 29’ Jan 13 *Tropic Camp high plains surrounded by scrub opened off the River but no free country of any extend-
Lat.23° 33’ 38" * Silurius camp Jan 12 scrubby the Mackenzie River Comet creek
*Charley’s Choice camp 11th Jan. the falls and margins of the tableland generally
with cut by deep gullies and watercourses are covered with a belt of scrub and render the travelling along the banks difficult but on the tableland inside the scrub frequently fine openly timbered country or an open scrub.
Sandstone low Range of Mountains fine open basaltic plain tolerably open country
Lat.23° 41’ 14"- 9 Jan 10 Jan *The Blackfellow cooee Camp open scrub off the creek long lawns and open flats accompanying chains of ponds a fine plain crossed 1 March 47 scrubby with patches of forest land
cypress pine rises of Sandstone covered with sand and pebbles
creek running in consequence of the rains which we had to ford the 1 March 1847
Lat.23° 51’ 8th Jan * Diver camp
Where I met first with the Mackenzy, immense broad
stretches reaches of water filled my thirsty eye with admiration. The melaleuca grows abundantly at its banks and stately flooded gumtrees mark with their white trunks its course even in the distance. The Casuarina is wanting, ducks are frequent, Pelicans:- Silurius is an excellent fish and of considerable dimensions: it takes raw meat for bait. The timber tree on the flats is a stunted gumtree between true box and Moreton bay ash. The bark strips but not freely. On the plains the bastardbox of New England with round glossy leaves strips well and the silverleaved Ironbark appears in some parts frequent- But no good timber with the exception of the flooded gum; the trees of the scrub are of too small Dimensions.
Latitude 23° 51 9 Jan *Divercamp
all scrubby with some patches of open forest and thickets of young Boxtrees
the Riverbed inclines to the formation of waterholes;
the inconsequence of the stiff soil of the scrub prevailing over the Sands of the distant mountains. melaleucas and flooded gum- Casuarina disappears. banks torn by gullies very winding irregular course. Blackfellows very numerous.
basaltic rise with open Ironbark forest. scrub with fine openening along swamps and long reaches of water scrub open basaltic rise
Lat. 23° 59’ 6" 5 Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan *Basalt camp scrub scrub creek parallel with the River fine waterholes water scrub
comet River nature of the bed continuing dry waterholes
Lat. 24° 5’ 36" 3 Jan 4 Jan *Camp of the lost Axe
scrub with very limited flats NNE 18 m.
bed of the River sandy, dry but fine oak and flooded gum at its banks
2 Jan. *Camp of the White Mans’ gunya.
NNW. Between NW and N detached Ranges and isolated peaks in different distances, some very high. [Some calculations]: 7+18+14 1/3 = 39 and 1/3
Thackers Range Range about 3 miles N 5- 10° W from the camp.
*8th April 7th camp at the Burdekin big fig tree camp.
riverbanks a little brushy Latit. 20°. 9’. 11" aparently open country peak to the north 2 species of fig trees 9m N 70° W
open however more ridgy country. mor. B. ash. Bloodwood rusty gum, narrow leaved Ironbark rich grass particularly where the creeks join the River.
large creek J.W. 7 April
granite- particularly the pegmatite variety with outbreaks of milk-white quarz
large creek South large creek long razorback very large creek the 2 equals
*6th camp at the Burdekin White pegmatite camp 10m. N 70° W aparently open country
a fine very openly timbered undulating and ridgy well grassed country. Very favourable for pastural purposes
granitic country ressembling exactly the northern parts of new England
5th camp at the Burdekin. At the 4 large casuarinas Porter’s Range high ranges many gullies along the river. 10 m. N 35° W. ridgy country openly timbered stunted Narrowleaved Ironbark and rusty gum Some new gum
open country probably very mountainous fine streaming river; rocky
Robey’s Range fine high Mt Range
*4 camp at the Burdekin In the casuarina thicket
very mountainous country feldsp porphyry 5 April big creek or River 9 miles N. 75 W ridgy and hilly openly timbered country Pandanus frequent
Lat. 20.24.12 4 April camp of the native Ivy granitic country or rocks of old igneous origin narrowleaved Ironbark
*3rd camp at the Burdekin 1m. N. 35 W.
ridges covered densely with scrub
with open myal forest
which all [give?] a fair view [of] the Christmas Range
*the 15th Decb. Scrub camp Bricklow scrub
Latit.24.39.40 just open enough to pass with our bullocks the country thinning out into holes, chains of holes in every direction all falling more or less towards the NW. Native lemon frequent. Ironstone hills rising isolated or in ridges, at the foot with chains of waterholes allmost all dry, though many with muscles shells. those hills covered with ironstone pebbles (conglomerate full of pieces of quarz) are probably igneous though I have seen here no basaltic or other igneous rock SW
*th 14th Decbr Myall camp Basalt
*13 febr 47
11. 12 febr 47
small plains surrounded and scattered over with scrub our [Indecipherable] bricklow Scrub a long flat valley with fine flooded gumtrees [Indecipherable], Erythrina Tristania
*the 13th Decbr the camp without water. NE. Descent to the NW. very mountainous country
the 12th Decbr. the 11th Decbr. the 9th Decbr 10th Decbr.
*Erythrina creek Very reedy fine spring water. palm trees. gullies with the vegetation of the gullies of the Boyd. for hills Sandstone fine open hills with Silverleaved Ironbark
fine silverleaved Ironbark forest palm trees
Expedition Creek fine open silverleaved Ironbark forest
*Ropers Stray Camp the 8th Decembr chain of ponds with water joining a creek with water
Boxflat with a stiff soil and melonholes scrub creeks with basaltic pebbles scrub Downs lagoons Mt
*The 7th Decbr Lat.24.54.19.
Dist. hills towards Norwest
a high Mt range apparently parallel to Exped. R. from S W-N East. n.16 W m.
an immense valley intervening out of which some isolated long stretched Hills rise, covered with scrub and plains. n. 88 ½ mag.
*Myal camp our mark more correctly laid down.
*camp without water Expedition Range Erythrina Creek Expedition River
The real stock of the Mt Range from which many gullies of Exped. River of Erythrina creek and of the N West valley rise is basaltic. Almost all the spurs are Sandstone, which forms precipitous gullies. The Sandstone of different description contains in many gullies layers of Ironstone of 2" in thickness. The country to the N East, limiting the large flat, through which we travelled, rises into the caracteristic forms of the basaltic and phonolithic rock. The gullies towards the S East, towards the N- N West in a west are Sandstone covered with the Scrubby vegetation of the gullies of the Boyd
126. our marker creeks without water open downs with the caracter of the Downs malaleucas basaltic pebbles more open ridges fine lagoons
Mt Nicholson basalt with cristals of peridot
*Speared Horse Camp Lat.24. 54. 19 the 7th Decbr
An immense flat-timber Silverleaved Ironbark and Box the creek originally deeply cut and accompanied by Casuarinas Calostemon and flooded gum, gets Shallow. many creeks equally devoid of water come down from Expedition Range
scruby ridges continuing to the left
an immense flat commences which extends towards the Northeast seemingly without limit. ranges are towards the East and South-east
a waterhole the flats get larger scruby ridges on each side
the 6th Decbr
*White Kangaroo Camp Lat. 25.0.34" Long.about 147° the 5th Decbr.
the little flats with Burr
Scrub frequently approaching particularly on the hills
*the 4th of Decembr. Vanga Vanga Camp. Lat.25.5’4’’
bricklow and Vitex scrub ironbark forest in the immediate neighbourhood of the creek Zamias 3-7’ high Casuarinas at the creek White Cedar
Zamia creek fat hen flats- fine flats with fat hen Erythrina open silverleaved Ironbark forest east creek Ropers Pass spotted gum Silverleaved Ironbark on the slopes
Sandstone Castle Creek the gullies tremendous rocks, perpendicular strange Sandstone
A valley beautifully grassed the slopes with silver leaved Ironbark creek of the ruined castle East creek
*Wallobi camp the 30th Nov 1st 2nd 3rd Decbr fine open forest fine open forest gentle slopes palm trees
palm trees gentle slopes
*Rocky scat camp the 28th Novbr. the 29th Novbr Lat. 25.13.19.
the castle creek though in general bearing NW- glorios in its main branch from Murpheys and Ropers pass rather west by North and westward for 7 miles-. Eastcreek, over the heads of which we pass about NW. is about 2 miles broad with fine waterholes. No body can miss the pass to fat hen flats and Zamia creek in keeping NW from Ropers pass between to mountains, which are perhaps 3 miles asunder. fathen flats extend for about 4 miles to NNE, where Zamia creek comes in from the right from the East.- the latitude of Vanga Vanga camp and Rocky seat camp is 8 miles different.- the division of the waters of Eastcreek and fathen flats is a slight ridge
128. high Mt range like a Rock barrier from E-W.
29th Nov. Lat. 25° 13’. 19"
*28th Novbr. Rocky seat camp
Ranges openly timbered with narrowleaved ironbark, silverleaved Ironbark, [Indecipherable] rusty gum the gullies with dense thickets of Cypress pine and of various shrubs belonging to Sandstone rock.
broad river according to Charley 9 N 15 E
*the ant camp the 27th Novbr. Lat. 25° 19’ 19"
high mountains seen N 75° W beyond the high Range of the Robinson, which seems to extend from N East to South west.
supposed course of the Boyd general direction of the valley
top of the range flat open timber Rusty bark tree everywhere in fine blossom. Stringybark cypress pine everywhere the probable Head
*26th Novbr. Camp under the Range of the Robinson. ironbark forest Sandy, rather scrubby zamia, grasstree rotten ground. fine open undulating richly grassed forest land high darklooking scrubby Ranges
Sandstone some of fine grain for millstones and grinding stones
Easterly and Southeasterly waters probably collected by the Robinson in its lower course
*25th Novbr Pigeon camp gullies with perpendicular rocks several hundred feet high. Ranges covered with open forest N 15° W. 8 M.
tremendous gullies, the head waters of the Robinson, frequently with Bottle tree scrub and the Corypha palm
*24th Novbr 23rd Novbr Lat.25.27.12 Rocky waterhole cypress pine
lagoon hilly country fine open, forest of silverleaved Ironbark and flooded gum lagoon lag.
*the 22nd Nov lat. 25.25.19. Scrubby high ranges the Range on which we travelled is open with some pine thicket
Barrier of mtains which we saw with Mr Gilbert
Mt. bearing North from our last reconnoitring hill
*1 Decbr 30 Novbr Camp of the sandstone cliffs
6 N E course of [Indecipherable]
tree with gilbert
*Rocky Seat Camp creek with palms
Reconnoitre with Charley
*the 21st Novbr lat 25.28.12 scrub covers the hilltops a mountainous country a mountainous country the bloodwood th. white gum, Manborr silverleaved and Narrowleaved Ironbark Oak- the 2 Proteaceae of kents lagoon- fine grass, the River with fine waterholes (plenty of muscles and little fish) surrounded by reeds.
the camp of the 20th is to be transferred to the line of bearing from the camp of the 19th
*the 20th Novbr. 1st camp at the Robinson
the Robinson with a fine broad Deep sandy bed water rare but beautiful- flats well grassed and open timber Appletree flooded gum, silverleaved Ironbark the permanent water with plenty of reeds.
12 N 80° 2 mountains seen in the distance- one S 80° the other N. 80° W- about 20 miles distant. W. rising into scrubby irregular ridges, waters all South and Southeast very flat lake lake rather close forest
*the 19th Novbr. Murphy’s lake camp range covered with dense scrub. The Robinson gilberts range open forest large swamps Reedy Creek very reedy flat
gilberts Range striking from E.-W.- densely covered with scrub an immense flat at the foot of the Range palm tree creek Ranges
other Ranges, all covered with scrub Main scrub swamp at the foot of the ranges Palmtree creek
3 SSW fine extensive flats on both sides of the creek which is bordered by palmtrees open ridges at its left
*Lat. 25.30.11 Eel camp South branch of Palmtr. Creek the 17th Novembr. the 18th Novbr. the scrub approaches sometimes the creek, but there are many fine open ridges beautifully grassed, silverleaved Ironbark- Some however rotten, generally covered with fields of everlastings.
1 N 3 b. SW 4W 1N several very extensive swamps
*stop the 16th Novbr the 15th Nov. camp at Ropers lakes 2 NW palmtrees frequent Scrub bricklow plains 3 NNW 2 SW 3 NW
Bast. Box thickets 3 NW Lynds Range presents a new aspect from gilberts Range. It is probably the Southern barrier of the Palmtree Creek valley Lynds Range
*Camp of the 13th of Novbr.
[From left:] palm tree creek the Dawson
River or creek which flows to the supposed course South and belongs perhaps to the System of the Darling.
Murphy’s lake and lake Range the Dawson A Riverhead or a large creek which probably receives the Northern waters of the Gilberts Range and carries them to the Dawson Gilberts Range probably to the Dawson
19th Nov. March Burr and terrain plains our reconnoitre Lynds range
Middle Range the Dawson far distant hill the Dawson ranges
More correct relation of the different Ranges.
*the 14th of Novbr commencement of a fair Range N. W. from the Down hills Gilberts Range stairs a fine isolated Mt. map bearing WN fr. Down Hills Mt. Lind
*our camp of the 13th Nov. should be here to agree with the bearings
Lat.25.36’ 2" 14 Nov. Bricklow plains Bricklow plains Bastardbox 1 SE 25 W 3 W 3 NE crossing the Dawson Bast. box scrub
*13th Nov 25° 37’ 12" 1 N 3 NE 3 NE
right banks of the River scrubby Bricklow and Bast. Box
left side of the River open
the River commences to run fine open forest to the left of the valley
fine open downs bound by Bricklow and Bottlebr. scrub
3 N 15 W valley scrubby with Bast Box NW WNW 1 ¾ open forest Hills
scrubby valley of the River 1 ½ NE
*11th Novbr. 1 ½ NW 1 ¼ N 25 W ½ W ½ NW 2 ½ NW
open hills 1 NNE ¼ N 25 W scrubby country
2 ¼ N 25 E
*10th Novbr. Lat. 25° 47’ 55 camp between River and Backwater with an opossom in the camp tree
N 1 ½ open forest more remote from the River box thickets
the country is less open more filled with Box thickets
N 30 W 5 Sandstone with strata of hydrate of Iron
fine lagoons all along the River fine lagoon Bastard box scrub along the River [Indecipherable] fine open plains and open Box forest surrounded by Bricklow scrub (the bricklow often scattered picturesqly in small groves through the plains
NE 4 ½ 2 m box scrub covers the banks of the Dawson on both sides
casuarinas are first visible on its banks Scrub
*9th Novbr the camp of the fields of everlastings latitude 25° 53’ 55"
¼ W 7 ¼ W 10 S NE 7 W 1 ¾ bastard box flats
N 60° W silverleaved Ironbark Ridges 1 NW
*the 8th November 2 NW WNW 1 ½ N Bastardbox flats
extensive plain to the right from which a chain of ponds comes down
the River turns round a spur of Sandstone. 1 ½ N 66 W
bastard box flats 2 N 25° W ¾ NW Scrub of Vitex
sandstone good for grinding tomahawks and knives Scrub
Coxens Acacia in detached groves
*the 7th Novbr. 44 kangaroo waterhole the most beautiful open forest country Bast. Box and sliverleaved Ironbark
N 75 W the Dawson 8. N 75 W.
*6 Nov. Lat.26° 3’ very open Bastard box forest the [Indecipherable] of trees scrub- Coxens acacia
*6th Novbr. Scrub silverleaved Ironbark with some devildevil [Indecipherable] fine open hilly box country C. plains sandstone with a profusion of plants fine box and apple tree flats at both sides of the many winding creek 10 N 66 W. ducks frequent. Calverts plains Bricklow scrub
*Latitude 26° 4’ 9" 5th Novbr. the 3 tree waterhole River with large Reedy lagoons and plenty of fish (not running) the Dawson
Sandstone 3 ½ W. Silverleaved Iron bark Ridges extensive flooded gums flat head of a River. 4 NW silverleaved Ironbark Ridge fine forest undulating fine open undulating country fall of the waters to the North.
gilberts sugarloaf ½ mile NNW
*4th Novbr. 3 N 10° East. densely timbered Ironbark forest Cypress pine Sandstone
l itria distinguished by scrubs and dense Cypress pine thickets. 1 NE N 70 W N 3 bricklow scrub my [Indecipherable] passage
the waterholes disappear and it is a flat country without fall, densely timbered but no Scrub open country N.3 bricklow scrub. 4 NW
In a NNW course one can avoid the scrub alltogether
comparatively open country with scattered acacias
*lat. 26° 12’. 31" 28 Octbr bricklow scrub Cypress open country open forest Cypress Creek chain of ponds ESE. 1 ½
*27th Octobr. Oak thickets N. 3 ½ fine open Ironbark forest good grass.
all open country according to Mr Gilbert several creeks to the East, which seem to be heads of Dogwood creek
Ranges beyond the scrub a large valley filled with Bricklow scrub- [Indecipherable] and the Bottle tree in very fine specimens
*26th Octb fine open NE Ironbark forest. East NE NE Acacia thickets
*25 Octb. 1843 9th Jan 1847
*25th Octbr Lat. 26° 15’ 46" water acacia scrub open forest acacia thickets
large creek seen by Mr Roper and Hodgson open forest and acacia groves 12 miles NW. Bricklow Ironbark forest new Myrtaceous tree Melaleuca and grass thickets Cypresspine
*24th Octb. NW 24 Octbr. fall of the waters to the east lagoons and chains of waterholes. SW. sandy scrubby country.
*23rd Octbr. Lat 25° 26’ 30" acacia * lat 26.24. the 8 Jan 1847
Dogwood creek Kudsara Cr. 26-15=11
Dogwood- Ironbark is the prevailing timber tree- Acacias very frequent
Cypress pine thickets.
Bricklow scrub scrubby fine open country casuarina scrub fall of the water
*22 Octbr. chain of rushy waterholes very dense scrubby Ironbark forest
open forest sand flat openly timbered forestland scrubby Ironbark forest N East.
fall of the waters to the North but doubtfull wether they turn not to S East they fall
through into Charleys Creek and into the Condamine
*11 Octbr cypress pine camp teatree scrub bricklow scrub Flosers spill open forest
*10 Octbr returned the 12 Octbr staying the 13th 14th 15-19th 20th
Lat 26.42.30 Ironbark forest flat country
Ironbark Ridges open forest valley between scrubs chain of ponds
Charleys Creek Bokkara Cr. winding creek 9 Oct
here Charley found John and Caleb
*9 Octobr. Lagoon fine open forest, flat Bricklow scrub rotten ground
fine open forest very flat
fine open undulating country ridges chain of ponds open forest
Myal scrub open forest Myal scrub
*8 Octbr. sandstone low ridges Myall
open forest Bricklow scrub forest Myall Bricklow scrub
*7 Octbr 25° 49’ all the left side of the Condamine is open forest , beautifully grassed
conglomerat open forest Bricklow scrub yellow Acacia groves sandstone beautiful country with detached Bricklow groves 26. 54 4 Octbr.
Lat. 26.56.11 5 and 6th Octbr country more open
lagoon open forest
the Condamine Condamine
[from lower left:]
*4 Octbr supposed backwater of the Condamine scrub opening in little groves great scrub open forest country with box with Mauborri and Mor. B ash- beautifully grassed
*3 Octbr. 26.44 Myal brush flat forest country stiff clay melon holes
Bastard box prevailing flat forest country small plains chain of ponds
*first halt 1 Octbr 2 Octbr. low ridge low Range North isolated cones Mt cones mt mass with undulating outlines
Waterloo plains without trees a rich black soil with frequent concretions Jimba creek *Jimba Crasy Range
[Radiating lines labelled:] True North Magnetic North
[Radiating lines only]
Radiating lines numbered 2 3 4 5 7 base line east of Bunkers Hill Westbrook Darling Downs 535 535.0
*the 2nd Jan camp after the white mans gunya anabranch scrub 5 NW
Latitude 24°. 18’.9"
Basaltic open plains scrub acacia
the foot of the mountains is open plains and ridges a belt of Bricklow scrub running out in narrow stripes to the River with Box tree thickets and open Boxtree flats
New Years Comet River N East 7 miles
Box flats fine Casuarinas many cockatoos the rough leaved fig tree and the huge leaved malvaieous shrub
Basalt these downs extend far to the West. SW. WSW but they appear at present without water- no blackfellow smoke
Albinia Downs- plains openly timbered hills or rises.
Lat. 24° 25’ 42"
*Deception camp the 28th- 29th Decembre scrub appearing again fine open Downs flat N.22 W. 5 miles.
Phonolith * 20 febr 47 fine open downs plains and openly timbered hills
fine open flat North 6 miles scrub creek from the East
*Camp at the Big wallobee the 27th Decbr. Myal
the right side of the River seems to partake in the caracter of the left.
fine Epidendric Cappan’s.
here we found the forked sticks and the skeleton of a gunya, the sticks strong saplings cut by a sharp iron tomahawk, which could only be cut and built by a white man who has past here perhaps 2 years ago. The blackfellows met 3 miles farther called out “whitefellow" when they saw me approaching there camp and they bolted directly.
New years camp
*camp at the muddy waterhole the 31 decb 1st January 45
River which reforms its former caracter
*Portulacca camp the 30th Decbr.
large creek from the downs to the SEast. & East.
NW the 3 bunya (?) Mt.
*Camp at the Bigwaterhole outside the Scrub the 27th Decembr.
open box flats
*1st reconnoitre camp
*second reconnoitre camp undulating scrubby country
N 80° a fine peak in the distance flat topped Mt.
*mud camp the 26th Decmbr
gap Blackfellow camp Ranges belonging to the Christmas Ranges as seen from Expedition Range scrub with plains- more scrubby towards the Mountains 16 miles NNE
All scrub of various aspect now little plains with Bricklow bushes now Bricklow thickets, now gumtrees intermixed and more open, now vitex
my reconnoitre for about 12 miles NW and NNW from scrubcamp continual scrub, with few opennings
hereabouts Lion [Indecipherable]
*Blackfellow camp 22nd Decbr. scrub receding from the creek Charley’s Reconnoitre creek 5 miles NNW openly timbered flooded gum flats
Browns creek with casuarinas melaleucas and flooded gum all scrub
*Camp at Browns lagoons the 17th 18th 19th 20th Decembr.
21st Decbr. 23. 24. 25th Decbr.
*Scrub camp 15. 16 Decbr. Waterhole which we missed
Lat.24° 44’ 55" Long. about 146°
[Numerous pencil calculations over written with]:
Variation of the needle 6° at an observation of the passing of the sun through the Meridian [leaf drawing and calyx with petals]
[Transcribed by Lynne Palmer for the State Library of New South Wales]