Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Aboriginal words and names, Upper Clarence River district, collected by Thomas George Hewitt about 1909; with introduction and index by R.L. Dawson, 1936
B 857

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[Note: Page numbers in brackets are the sequential numbering of the digitised pages. The page numbers as written in the volume are shown above]

-Aboriginal Words and Names-
-Upper Clarence River Dialect-
Collected by Thomas George Hewitt

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[Blank Page]

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Subject - Page
Introduction and Explanation – 2
Animals- 5
Fish etc-8
Man with human body etc-10
Weapons and domestic articles-12
The Elements etc-13
Trees etc-14
Tribes, Aboriginal-16
Place Names-17
Miscellaneous Words-20
Words which no meanings given-22
Corrobboree songs-23
Origin of Corrobboree-24
Note on letter sounds in dialects-25

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-The Mitchell Library – Sydney -

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-Aboriginal Words and Names-
Collected by the late Thomas George Hewitt
- Of Grafton and Lismore-

-An Introduction and an Explanation-

The following lists of Aboriginal Words and names, with their meanings were collected by Mr Hewitt apparently in or about the year 1909.
His notes were evidently hurridly taken in pencil taken in pencil and are indistinctly written, so much so indeed that it is almost impossible to decipher some of the aboriginal words or their English equivalents.
Mr. Hewitt’s son, Mr N.C. Hewitt of Tweed Heads NSW, recently sent me his father’s note book to do the best I could with it in the way of deciphering, classifying, and arranging the words.
This I have done on the same lines as used in my own Aboriginal booklets of words and names collected from Richmond River and Lower

[Page 12]

* Clarence River dialects in 1922 and 1935.
Mr Hewitt does not definitely state the locality, or localities, from where the lists were obtained but his son assures me that his father’s informant was one "Billy Buchan" an aboriginal native of Etonsville, which is up river from Grafton, and therefore the great majority of the words are almost certainly from the dialect of the upper Clarence blacks. This is further confirmed by the fact that most of the place names given refer to stations and other places up river, or inland, from Grafton. A few words are definitely are definitely from the Richmond river and other localities and these are specified separately herein.
I have not altered, or interfered with, Mr Hewitt’s spelling though occasionally tempted to do so in order to make the correct pronunciation (to my thinking) somewhat clearer. In some cases Mr Hewitt himself has given altered

* Both publications are in the Mitchell Library

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spellings for the same words in an effort to overcome the problem of reproducing the exact aboriginal Enunciation, often a most difficult thing to do. In writing aboriginal words I have made it a rule to use the letter "G", "g", where the sound is hard and "J", "j" where it is soft and I fancy that Hewitt has also done this judging by the frequency of "J" in his spellings.
In my booklet "Aboriginal Words and Names", Lower Clarence River dialect, published 1935, I have emphasised the strange fact that this dialect is entirely different to that of the Richmond River Natives although the localities are barely 70 miles apart by air line. A still stranger fact is that the Upper Clarence dialect seems to be entirely different to that spoken by the Lower river blacks taking Grafton, roughly speaking as the dividing line. When collecting words from Freeburn, a half-caste native of Yumbah, (Clarence Heads) he told me that a distance apart

[Page 14]

of 10 to 20 miles sometimes brought a complete change of dialect. At the time I doubted him but a perusal of Mr Hewitts "notes" it appears to fully confirm Freeburn’s statement.
If therefore an average distance of say 20 miles brought a change, what then must have been the Extraordinary number and variety of dialect throughout our vast continent?
Herein are a grand total of about 364 aboriginal words. So far I have failed to obtain, or to decipher, the correct meanings of about 24.
In regard to about 40 no meanings have been given by Mr Hewitt but I have include them in the faint hope that some day the meanings may be discovered. A balance is left of some 300 words of which I think the great majority, both the English and the Aboriginal, are correct though in view of the indistinctiveness of the original manuscript

[Page 15]

I cannot be certain of every word

Robt L Dawson
Roseville N.S.W
2nd March 1936


Since the foregoing was written I have submitted the "note-book," and any lists there from, to Mr R.C. Law Hony. Secretary of the Clarence River Historical Society. Mr Law’s local knowledge, particularly in regard to Place Names, has helped me so considerably that almost all the missing words (about 124) have now been deciphered and they, with their meanings, are now included herein.
In stating that Mr Hewitt’s lists are from the "Upper Clarence" it should be noted that I am doubtful whether his researches excluded much beyond Yulgilbar & its locality so that the blocks of the far Upper Clarence Embracing Bonalbo, Tooloom, Woodenbong, Koreelah Etc, may have spoken quite a different dialect.
Yulgilbar district is about 60 miles from Grafton.
R.L.D. 5/5/1936

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Kangaroo, big grey - Ny-oo-ran
Do. [Ditto], flyer - Coo-an
Walleroo - Chen-doo-gal
Paddymelon - Kir-rah-bam
Kangaroo rat - By-ee or Wee-wee-gan
Bandicoot - Yak-cool
Bushy-tailed rat - Chel-kar-ra
Native cat (black, white spots) - N’go-um
Opossum, big grey - Kool-my-moo-mon
do ring-tail - Cool-oom-bee
Flying squirrel, big - Murra-murra-wine
Do " , small - Pahn-go
Porcupine (echidna) - Chen-na-chen-nay
Flying fox - Coo-yong
Infant Kangaroo - Boor-goon-ne-eng

[Page 18]

In birds Mr Hewitt has three not entered on right hand page because indistinct writing rendered it difficult to determine the kind with certainity. They are

Big-gar-ra-geen appears to be - Diver, white breasted
Bahm-beer-guin " " - Middy bird
Kur-koo-now - not decipherable Birds on honeysuckle trees (Banksia)
Jel-wung - New England magpie

[Page 19]

-Birds- Aquatic –

Black swan - Kin-yee-bee or Kin-yee-lee
Black duck - Mah-ra
Musk duck - Jir-reen-jam
Wood duck - N’gown
Redbill - Kee-yang or Kul-kum
Cormorant - Yeer-gal
Pelican - Choon-garra
Nankeen crane - Kin-nu-bo

-Brush or Scrub Birds-

Brush turkey - Wok-koon
Wonga pigeon - Boo-ba-bu-long
Green fruit pigeon - Wo-gan
Pigeon (kind not stated) - Doo-rang
Lyre bird - Boo-rain
Satin bird - Jeer

-Open Forest and Grass Birds –

Emu - Moo-room or N’goo-rim (Egg Kah boon)
Native Companion (brolga) - Koo-ral-kum
Plain turkey (bustard) - Koo-ral-gum
Magpie - Koom-boo-kool-bum

[Page 20]

"Wy-ee-lahr" is probably correct ………

[Page 21]
- Open Forest and Grass Birds – (Continued)
Plover (spur wing) - Dow-dow-arri-gum
Curlew (stone plover) - Bool-bin
White cockatoo - Kay-er
Black do - Wy-ee-lahr or Wig-ee-lahr (spelling doubtful)
Parrott, King - Bil-leen
do. Rosella - Doo-doo-my-ah
do. Blue mountain - Boo-yum
do. Green leek - Joon-joo-nah
Hawk – Wedge-tail eagle - Mee-buhn
do. Fish hawk - N'gun-gow
do. Sparrow - Koon-doo-nah
do. Kind not stated - N'gud-gee N'gud-gee
Quail big - Moom-been
Quail small - Wob-bung-bul-lin
Blue wren - Boon-boon
Peewit or magpie lark - Wont-joo-joolum
Dollar bird - Dow-dow
Swallow - Tull-yan-boom-bah-ling
King fisher - Tin-ding
Night owl - Chon-gung

[Page 22]

- Fish etc. -

Shark, kind not stated - T'chal-lum-bil
Cod - Choon-non
Perch - Mor-geen
Bream - Koo-lee-gar
Mullet, sea - Wo-bum
Do., river - T'chal-loom
Cat fish - Kum-balun
Do. " (eel tail) - Wog-gine
Eel - U-rol
Garfish - Wok-kine or Nom-on
Herring - U-man
Crab - N'gat-toon
Stingray - N'gul-li
Bull-rout - Kool-bur
Tortoise (small, fresh water) - Bin-gun
A small fish - Wog-gum-bee
Frog (green) - Jar-ine
Leech - Choo-rohn-ga

[Page 23]

Hornet (another name) Dig-gar

"Pyarra," I am not personally acquainted with this snake. Years ago I have heard it described by the Barues boys of Dyraaba cattle station as rare, bright copper coloured, swift in its movements, fierce and dangerous, but of moderate size and greatly dreaded by the blacks.
On Dyraaba it was only to be seen on rocky country of sandstone formation


[Page 24]

- Insects etc-
Grasshopper - Jin-yan
Flea - Bull-ahm-bir
Louse - Doo-lum
Maggot - Joon-berra
Ant, red soldier - Koom-moom
Hornet, wax nest - Doo-gool
Do., mud nest - Moo-loon-gur
Wasp - Kur-ra-bul

- Reptiles-
Snake, carpet - Yum-bar
do black - Koon-goo-loon
do green whip - Yee-rine
do bandy-bandy - Toon-doo-goo-rum
do tiger - Buk-kul
do copper colour - Pyar-ra
do diamond - Moon-dool-koo-lum
Death adder - T'cham-bu

[Page 25]
- Man- With the human body and parts there of-
Father - Mah-mong
Mother - War-ro-hong
Old man - Mun-di-kun
Brother - Bun-nahn
Sister - Nun-nahng
Uncle - Kow-ung
Aunt - N'gar-roon
Cousin - Boo-jem-jir
Daughter - Mood-jun-ger-kin
Son - Mood-gun-ger
A woman's name (black Eliza) - Mur-run-gi
Big Dahky (sic) - Din-garing-ga
Head - Bung-em
Hair of the head - Kum
Eyes - T'che-ung
Ears - Been-nung
Nose - Moo-ron
Mouth - T'cha-ing
Teeth - Dor-rung
Chin - Yal-leen

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- Man etc. - (continued) –

Neck - Wor-ra
Throat - Wor-ra
Arms - Kul-kerri-bar
Elbow - Booga-Boodgr
Chest - Kan-geer
Breast - N'go-lan-der
Breasts (woman) - Koo-room-gun
Stomach - Yal-lo
Thighs - Cher-rung
Shin - Bood-goo
Knee - Gin-deel
Foot - Chen-nung
Toes - Mil-leen
Hand - T'chum-bi
Fingers - Ny-oori-an-ya
Finger-nails - Mu-lahn
Skin - U-line
Talk (speech) - Kin-yar-ree
Mother – dialect uncertain- Can-ghar-kin
Woman – " " - Coo-roon-ga

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Mr Hewitt gives no explanation as to three different names for dilly bag. They may represent varying dialects or may be names from the same dialect for different sizes or shapes of these cleverly woven bags.
So far as I recollect they varied considerably in size though very little in shape or construction.
Mr Hewitt describes the raw material as "reed" but really it is grass, flat stemmed and tough, and grows in clumps on sandstone ridges. I am not certain of the words "scrap net" (it may be "shrimp") and "paddymelon net" as they are very indistinctly written and the long word is abbreviated.


[Page 28]
-Weapon and Domestic Articles-
Spear - Ju-an
Boomerang - Bur-ra-ga
Do., heavy for war - Bar-rong
Club, nullah - Kun-nine
Paddymelon stick - Joo-nong
Shield - Buk-kar
Stone axe - Bi-ber
Knife, probably of flint - Joon-gon
Gunyer, bark shelter - Bag-gool
Rug, possum skin - Woom-bun
Belt, of spun opossum fur - Bud-gen
Dilly bag - Jin-dar-gun
do - Jin-dal-geen
do - Chin-dal-kir
Dilly bag grass, or reed, used - Doo-loon
Fish net of string made from bark - N'gara-toon
Scrap net " " " " - Moo-gool-gun
Paddymelon net " " " - Yow-ong or Moon-dong
Water carrier - Koo-long
"Koolong," probably made from the bangalow palm.

[Page 29]
Some of the writing in connection with canoes is extremely indistinct. What appears to be "out of grey gum" probably means grey gum bark.
The "stick for ditto" probably means a stick, like a paddle, for propelling a canoe.
Stick, (Yam-boo-ra) is followed by two word which I cannot decipher though one looks something like the word "holding". Probably "Stick for holding canoe". R.L.D.

Mr Hewitt gives "gunger," a bark shelter "as "baggool" and the same word for a canoe. No doubt both were constructed of stringy bark. (Pages 12 and 13)

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- Weapon and Domestic Articles- (contd.)
Canoe (out of grey gum) - Mugo
Canoe - Bag-gool
Stick for ditto (sic) - N'gan-dar
Stick - Yam-boo-ra

- The Elements Heavenly Bodies etc. -
Sun - Yel-gun (Richmond River)
Moon - Kee-yoom-gun " "
Stars - Koo-yoom-gun " "
Big flood - Jier-koon-go " "
Little flood, or fresh - Toom-gun " "
High tide - N'gul-lool " "
Low tide - T'chow-gil-lin " "
Ebb - Kai-gar " "
Sun - N'gian (Dialect uncertain)
Moon - Kee-ling " "
Star - Billa-bow-gil-bun " "
Ey or Eg (may mean evening) - Jya-nah-gan " "
Big Wind - Yoo-roo-woo-ra " "
Fog - Tucki " "

[Page 31]
- Trees of the Dense Brushes -
Red cedar - Mum-mul-gar
White cedar - Gee-in-gah
Hoop pine - Chum-bool-gar
Giant fig tree - Bood-ju-ga and Kah-koon-gir
Small fig tree - Chum-bool
Bean tree - Bow-gam-gir
Sting tree, large leaf - Kee-im-bo-gah
Do., small leaf - Woo-li-el-gah
Cabbage tree palm - Ny-am-bi-gah
Bangalow palm - Big-gee-been-gah
White myrtle - Jee-leen-gar
Black myrtle - Boo-loom-gir
Silky oak - Wy-ee-gar-gir

- Trees of the Open Forest -
Blackbutt - Won-gee-gah
Apple tree (Angophera) - Chin-di-gar or Boo-bee-gar
Dogwood - T'che-nur-gar
Wild quince - Bil-leen-de-gar

[Page 32]
Probably the "Edible bean" is the seed of the bean tree, (bow-gam-gir) or Kiorton Bay chestnut, which is contained in large pods. I have been told that in the early days the blacks used to crush these seeds and soak them for some days in running water to remove certain deleterious matter before roasting them

[Page 33]
-Trees of the Open Forest- (Continued)-
Wattle - Boo-boon-gah
Wattle (acacia) - Ty-eel-gah
Wattle (another kind) - Uloon-gah
Mountain box - Kar-ra-gar
Spotted gum - U-rang-bil

-Brush Plants etc. -
Staghorn fern - Toom-bun
Birds nest fern - Wad-ji-mum
Cockspur vine - Bam-bar
Water vine - Boo-loo-mum-gar
Another vine - Noo-roor-bum
Yam vine - Mood-jir
Wild grape vine - Noo-roi-mum
Edible bean - N'go-boon
Fruit - Chum-bun
(kind of fruit not stated)

- Since deciphered -
Flame tree (sterculia Acerifolia) Ter-ri

[Page 34]
This record of "Aboriginal Tribes" is both interesting and valuable. In my booklet (1935) of "Aboriginal Words and Names," "Lower Clarence River Dialect "I wrote of my informant Freeburn as "a native of the Yumbah Tribe." I assured this as he was born and bred at a place he calls "Yumbah " at the Clarence River heads. Apparently my assumption was wrong and Freeburn probably belongs to either "Yoon-gi" or Watchi-Watchi.

Near the end of his note book Mr Hewitt states that "Richmond River blacks call Clarence" then comes an unreadable word which may be "Tribes", "Koom-bin-jir" and the Logan (tribe) "Kul-lum-bil". There is an interesting word "Kowal" but I cannot decipher its meaning


*R.R. blacks call themselves "Kow-al"

[Page 35]
- Aboriginal Tribes With Localities -
On sea coast south of Clarence River - Yoon-gi
Lawrence to the sea - Wat-chi Watchi
Grafton to Copmanhurst - N'gar-rab-bel
Gordon Brook - T'chool-ine-bir
Tabulam and Bonalbo - Kid-cha-bil
"Told (or old) tribe meet" (another word - Moon-dool
Cangi and up River Mann - Boo-ta-bil
Nymboi - Koom-bine-jir
Bellingen - N'gum-bar
Lower Richmond River - Bum-moo-bil
Upper do " - Wah-loo-bil
Guy Fawkes - Jer-ra-win
Glen Innes - N'gar-ra-bil
Tenterfield - T'chet-a-bul
Bundarra - N'gar-a-bil
Mingoola (Severn R) - Wok-ko-Wokko
Ipswich (Q'land) - Yuk-kur-bool
Darling Down (Q'land) - Ko-noo
Looks like "Garrin Jack" - Woor-ad-girri
" " "near S. Grafton N.W all on" - Mak-kahn-geer

[Page 36]
Mr Law says there is a Mr Kaloe and a Parish of Kaloe in the vicinity of the River Mann.

The Head may mean the Head Station "Eatonswill." This station was originally named "Eatonswill" by its owners Mylne Brothers who were noted for their hospitality during the forties. Their Guest could "Eat" and "swill" as much as they liked. The name is now "Eatonsville".

[Page 37]
- Place Names -
Old Man Hat, or Hut - Bah-jam-ba
Mann River - Kah-lo-e
Big Hill to Glen Innes - Nee-oom (snow)
Waterfall - Koom-ba-may
Smith's Flat (no. 2 Hotel) - Koon-gan-dy
Mount William (Mr King William) - Bood-jem-by
Red Rock - Egee-row
Mare's Paddock - De-rahn-gun
The Head - Koom-book-om-bo
The Gorge - Gar-oong
Solferino - Boo-yoo-gum
Carr's Island - Moo-li-bir-reen
Dalmorton - N'gun-dam
Opposite Eatonsville - Yoon-gar-rain
Upper Copmanhurst - U-rang-bil
Gordon Brook - Kian-jerri-mun
Ten Mile Station (10m from G.Brook) - Koorway (Koor-way)
Camelback Mt. (Opp. Gordon Brook) - Bum-boom-gun
Copmanhurst Mt. - Mool-e-jin

[Page 38]

Note "Joo-loor" means boils or skin eruptions. Mr Hewitt writes "Harry Capps says Uralba is not an aboriginee's name. Is very positive about it and, being near where he was born, he ought to know. He says its right name is "Boo-lar-rim-gin" the "g" pronounced hard.

Mr R.C. Law of Grafton says he knows no place called "Stomblin Wharf" but suggests it might be "Strontian Park." The script however is notice the least like these two words. It might possibly be "Stromboli Wharf."

[Page 39]

- Place Names - (Continued)
Junction Mann and Nymboida Rivers - Mar-ring-in-do
Opposite Mountain - Coo-la-gi
Bald Hill - Woy-gain-gay
Swamp - Too-loom
Ring Tree Swamp - Woyn-goo-rah
Pig Swamp - Joo-loor
Uralba - Bool-ar-rim-gin (g hard)
Bushy Park (Aitkin’s place) - Boo-bar-ri-go
Glenugie - Coo-nah-jin
Mountain View - Tuck-um
Bellevue - Choom-bi-bil
A. Rhodes old place - T'choor-oon-gow
Morgan's place - Yak-koori-birreen-
Cameron's place - Noo-gar-ra
D.Ware's place - N'goo-ring
Stomblin Wharf (?) - Buk-kur
Moleville - Toon-dool-gar
Factory Gr. (sic) - Oon-ga-Roon-ga
Old burial Grafton - Koo-yong
Dallinga (Wilcox's old place) - Uki-an-gur

[Page 40]
Un-dum-gar" for a station near Mt Luidesay is more nearly correct than usual "Unumgar" though it always seemed to me more like "Un-tum-gar," or a sound between d and t if such a sound is possible to anybody but a blackfellow. The late J.C. Edwards of Roseberry gave me the name for Kyogle as "Curroka," not "Cha-wy-bin." It is possible there may have been two names, one for the mountain (Fairymount) and one for Fawcett's Plain. Kyogle (a bustard, or plain turkey) was originally the name of Runnymede Plain until Mr Alex Mackellar shifted it.
I prefer "Tchal-gum-buin" for Mr Lindesay. I have heard it very often from the Richmond River blacks

[Page 41]
- Place Names (Continued)
Heifer Station - Choom-boor-gi
Cliff where - Koom-bro
Racecourse at Grand Stand - Der-ri-ga
Showground Fisher Park - Coo-yong
Name of Old Long Harry - Mak-kahn-jerry
Hill opposite Racecourse S. Grafton - Koon-dar-rung
Carey's place - N'go-wum
Susan Island - Kin-ning-Inen
Momba View, or mountain view - Kah-kow
Abraham Davison's place (Double Swamp) - Doo-ram-in-gar
Watts place - Ni-ye-nom
Mouth of Whiteman Ck. (Joins Clarence) - Ny-eer-keen
Punt, Whiteman Ck. (Black lost net name - N'gun-a-boin
                                                              or net
Trenayr (now Koolkahn Ry Station - Jun-keer-ku-geer
Cape Byron (local dialect) - Kar-ran-bay
Juan and Julia Rocks do - Killa-mah-gan
Unumgar (Upper Richmond) - Un-dum-gar
Kyogle do - Cha-wy-bin
Mt. Lindesay do - Chal-kum-bin

[Page 42]
-Miscellaneous Words
Long tree in scrub - Koom-bug-ga
Vine broke man killed - Gil-gar-row
Crevices in rocks - Pul-gein
Burial - Noo-koo-mah
A game or pastime - N'gur-ran-nu
A stone - Woor-row-in
Worn - Oon-gool-chal-lee
Mystic stick - Wur-rah-ween
Do - Wum-ma-ren
Do - Bun-jahn-ya
Carved bones - Joon-do Wanda Boo-ro N'gun-da
Do - Wan-da Kelu-ka Coom-bo Coom-bo-lah
Do - N'ga-rar – Boo-gar
Scars - Go-ron
Charcoal - Nig-geir (or geen)
Eating too fast - N'gam-bil
Sick - Boom-boom
A rock (Nymboida) - Koo-ron
Junction - U-rool-gur

[Page 43]

It is evident that some of these miscellaneous words should have gone under the heading of "Place Names" but the great difficulty in the first instance of deciphering several of them is the reason why they are placed out of their proper course.
R.L.D. 5/5/36

River on the sea coast which takes in Wooli}
River and Red Rock. The latter has nothing }          Bah-gun-gary
To do with Red Rock near Copmanhurst, page 17}

Big Mountain Grafton to Glen Innes - Koo-reen-myr
Railway Street Grafton - Jin-keer-gun-gur

Crossing at Yate's Flat between Yulgilbar
And Tabulam (now spelt "Moo-ki-ma") Moo-ko-mah Wy-bra

[Page 44]

-Miscellaneous Words- (Continued)
Hats, where first seen with whites Too-kool-jin
Gate going through paddock to Gordon Brook Joon-ber
Sharp's place (might be) Nah-keel
Bultitude's place on Carr's Creek Ar-rir-ki
Through paddock below punt N'gow-un-gi
Coval boiling clown place Carrs Creek Woon-gab-bee
Falls, southern end, apparently near Etonsville Tun-dar
Below Etonsville Ferry N'gowhn-gay
"Mere"(sic) may mean a pool or a small lake Koom-bum
A Blowy Heath (sea side near Coff's Harbour) Bo-am-bee
Close (sic) may mean close to N'go-am-bee
Ring Tree Swamp, Woyngoorah on page 18 varied to... Woy-ya-N'goora
Daddy (sic) Kan-gon-ay-oo-rar
Billy, or Betty, Bun (probably someone's name) Mar-ra-yo-war
Ford, or Food T'chib-be-reen
Sterculia, the Flame tree Ter-ri
Looks like "Poor Fella Koo-rahm Nya-gan
    " do Koo-rah – Mah-tee
Flax used by ----- tender part eaten Bai-i-kin

[Page 45]
- Words to which no meanings given -
Coom-bah-ja- Noor-ka
U-loine Moo-roor
The dialect from which above words are taken is uncertain but probably most are from the Upper Clarence.

[Page 46]

- The following words appear to be parts of
Corrobboree songs. No meaning given.

"Yar-rone-gina, Kia Ki-yee N'gia
Ye jen jen-ning Kar-rah boo-gar,
Yur-rone gina, Kiah Ki-yee N'gia."

"Ah jer-ra-win, ya goon-yum, Wo-bil Wobil
Kar-rohn-bay Wobil Wobil, Kar-rohn-bay Wobil-Wobil."

[Page 47]
- Origin of the Corrobboree -
"The tradition on the Richmond River of the origin of the Corrobboree is that long ago there were three brothers, all influential men, who had a difference about their sway in those parts.
They were named Bir-rung, Mum-mor-ni, and Yab-brine.
Having had a dispute Birrung went north, Mummorni south and Yabbrine west.
The latter introduced the Corrobboree and it was the meaning of uniting them all again."

[Page 48]
- Note on letter sounds in dialects -
A peculiarity which strikes one in Aboriginal dialects (so far as my knowledge extends) is the entire absence of V, X and Z sounds while Q is infrequent.
In three dialects from which I have compiled lists, viz those of the Richmond River, the Lower and Upper Clarence, the three first named letters do not occur at all and Q very seldom. I have searched several lists compiled by others from a great variety of dialects but, so far, have not found V, X, or Z.
All Aboriginal dialects appear to be remarkable for the extensive use of vowel sounds Especially O and double OO.


[Transcribed by Darren Blumberg for the State Library of New South Wales]