Sir Edward Macarthur emigration correspondence, 1836-1847

Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Sir Edward Macarthur emigration correspondence, 1836-1847
A 2918

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Front cover of diary.

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Inside cover of diary.

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Macarthur Papers
Volume 22
Emigration Correspondence of Sir Edward Macarthur
1836 – 1847

Alphabetical List of Writers
(Unless otherwise indicated the letters are addressed to E.M.)

Benett, John – 1836 Oct. 30 – 78-83

Churchill, William – 1836 Oct. 14, 18 – 43-5, 51-3

Ebenau, C. – 1838 Ap. 8 – 169-71

Fitzroy, Sir Charles Augustus – 1847 Jan. 22 – 326-8

Giblett, John and Giblett, James – 1844 Jy 29 – 286

Grove, to Rev. J. West – 1836 Sept. 27 – 29-30

Landowners, Merchants and others interested in the welfare of New South Wales address to Lord Glenelg – 1839 Jan. 31 – 234-7

Lister, Clements – 1845 My 19 – 293-5

Macalister, Lachlan – 1845? draft agreement with P. Post – 288

Macarthur, Sir Edward
MSS – 1836 Nov. 12 memo of stores and passage money of emigrants per Brothers – 96-7
- 1837 Oct. draft of agreement between German vignerons and the M. Brothers – 259-60
- 1837 Oct 9 agreement between 6 German vignerons and the M. brothers – 151-8
- 1842 Oct. 15 statement of money deposited with, by J.B. Beckhaus – 161
- 1842? comments on cessation of emigration to New South Wales in 1840 – 258-60
- 1845 Jan. notes on emigration – 391-2
- 1846 – brief remarks on colonization (printed) – 305-22

Letters – to Buckles & Co. – 1843 Oct. 18 – 263-4
- Churchill, W. – 1836 Sept. 27 – 23-6
- Bishop of Exeter – 1842 Jan. 25 – 251-4
- Lord Glenelg – (1839) – 222-6
- Labouchere – 1839 Jy 15 – 244-7
- Macarthur, W. – 1838 Sept. 25 – 214-8
- Lord Monteagle – 1847 Jy – 333-9
- his brothers – 1843 Oct.-Nov. – 267-70, 274-5, 279-84
- Lord Normanby – 1839 Mar. 7 – 238-43
- Rev. J. West – 1836 Sept.-Oct. – 11-4, 55-6
- Lord ? – 1842 Jan. 25 – 25-7

Macarthur, James – 1838 Aug. 9 agreement with commander of Royal George re emigrants – 206-8
- 1847 Feb. 11 to F.L.S. Merewether – 329-31
- 1838 Oct. ? sums received from passengers in Royal George – 219

Macarthur, James and Macarthur, William – 1837 Ap. 11 agreement between M. brothers and emigrants – 118-21

Macarthur, Sir William – 1845 My 19 to C. Lister – 296-9

Macpherson, Donald – 1838 My 10 to Sir W.M. – 173-6

Marshall and Enridge – 1842 Oct. 31 – 261

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New South Wales – Immigration Office
- 1839 Dec. 17 to J. & W.M. – 248-9

Petition from Landholders etc. interested in the welfare of New South Wales
- 1847 Jan. 22 – 324

Schutze, H – 1837 May-Au – 139-50
- 1838 Feb. 13 – 166-7

West, Rev. John – 1836 Au.-Nov. (14) – 1-10, 15-42, 47-54, 57-60, 84-95

Index to Important Subjects

Australia – Emigration
- 1847 – E.M. to Lord Monteagle (printed) – 333-9

Australia – Public Lands
- 1839 – Returns of land sales and emigration – 227-8

The Brothers – 1836 Oct.-Nov. – 31-94

Derby, Edward Geoffrey Stanley, Earl of – 1842 – 251

Elliott, William – 1836 Sept. – Oct – 16, 31-2, 40, 62

Germans in Australia – 1837-1838 – 139-71
- 1842 Oct.-Nov. – 267-76, 278-84
- 1845 May – 293-9
- 1847 Feb. – 329-31

Germany – Emigration and Immigration
- 1837-1838 – 139-50, 166-71
- 1837 Oct. – 151-60

Gipps, Sir George – 1842? – 258-60

Great Britain – Emigration – 1839 – 222-6
- 1842 – 251-7
- 1846 – 305-22

Highlanders, Scottish – 1838 – 173-6

John McLellan, Ship – 1838 – 177-204

Macarthur, Sir Edward – 1837 Aug. in Germany, engaging vignerons for Camden – 147, 150
- 1838 Au. signed on behalf of brother James, agreement with commander of Royal George – 208, 212
- 1839 Jan. member of Committee in London of Landowners etc. interested in welfare of New South Wales, signed an address to Lord Glenelg – 234-7
- 1839 Mar. member of deputation to Lord Normanby urging promotion of emigration to Australia – 238
1840+ opinion re Land Sales Fund of New South Wales – 250
- 1842 Nov. accounts for goods supplied for German emigrants – 271, 278

Macarthur, James and Macarthur, William
- 1836, Au.-Nov. Correspondence of E.M. and Rev. West re emigration of Dorset farm servants to be employed by J. and W.M. – 1-42, 47-54, 57-60, 84-95
- 1837 Oct. agreement (orig. and draft) between the M. brothers and German vignerons – 151-60
- 1837+ names of men employed by – 165

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Macarthur, James and Macarthur, William (Contd.)
- 1839 Dec. bounty on emigrant families – 248-9
- 1844 Jy payment of passages for 3 emigrant families from New Zealand to Sydney – 286

Macarthur, Sir William – 1836 Ap. signed on behalf of brothers, agreements with emigrants per Brothers – 118-21

Merino Sheep – 1836 – 57-8

New South Wales – Boundaries – 1841 – 301-4

New South Wales – Commerce etc. 1847 – 333-9

New South Wales – Emigration – 1836 Au.-Nov. Correspondence of E.M. with W. Churchill and Rev. J. West re Dorset emigrant farm hands to be employed by J. & W.M. conditions in the colonies – 1-59, 84-95
- 1836 Oct.-Nov. Notes of hand signed by emigrants per The Brothers, engaged by E.M. – 61-77
- 1836 Nov.-1837 Ap. memo by Sir E.M. of stores to be made up by emigrants per Brothers, during voyage and agreements with M., W. & E.M. for service and wages – 96-7, 102-22
- 1837 My – 1838 Ap. H. Schutze of Schweta and C. Ebenau of Wiesbaden to E.M. re persons desiring to emigrate to Australia and 6 wine-dressers and families who emigrated Oct. 1837 – 139-50, 166-71
- 1837 Oct. Agreement (original and draft) between E.M. for himself and his brothers, and German vignerons – 151-60
- 1838 My 6 families emigrating in John McLellan – 78-9, 197-204
- 1838 My 10 Colonel D. Macpherson to J.M. encloses names of Highland farm servants about to embark which he recommends – 173-6
- 1838 Au-Oct. Agreement between Commander Royal George and J. Macarthur for accommodation for passengers to New South Wales; particulars of insurable interest in and list of emigrants to sail in Royal George – 206-8, 212, 215-6
- 1839 Jan. ? E.M. on behalf of a committee of landowners, etc. interested in the welfare of N.S.W. to Lord Glenelg re emigration to Australian colonies; with Returns comparing emigration with Land Sales 1832-7 – 222-6
- Jan. 31 address from same committee to Lord Glenelg – 234-7
- Mar. 7 E.M. to Lord Normanby explains shortage of labour in the colony and suggests funds for emigration from Land Revenue – 238-43
- Jy 15 E.M. to Labouchere, requests modification of age limitation affecting importation into N.S.W. of farm labourers by individual proprietors on account of loss of bounties thus incurred – 244-7
- 1842 ? comments by E.M. on cessation of transportation to N.S.W. in 1840 – 258-60
- 1842 Jan. 25 E.M. to several M.P. (Britain) enclosing letter to Lord Stanley urging promotion of emigration – 255-7

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New South Wales – Emigration Contd.
- 1842 Jan. 25 E.M. to Bishop of Exeter re emigration and misappropriation of Land Sales Fund – 251-4
- Oct.-Nov. E.M. to his brothers re 4 German vine-dressers emigrating per Fama – 267-271, 274-5, 278-84
- 1846 Brief remarks by Lt. Col. M. on colonization (printed) – 305-22
- 1847 Jan. 22 Landholders and others interested in the welfare of N.S.W. to Fitzroy requesting renewal of immigration (printed) – 324
- 1847 Jan. 22 Fitzroy to Landholders and others expresses readiness to recommend resumption of emigration from U.K. – 320-8
- Feb. 11 J.M. to F.L.S. Merewether reply to inquiries on immigration from Continent, recommends it – 329-31
- Jy E.M. to Lord Monteagle on population, colonies and commerce, need for promoting emigration – 333-9

New South Wales – Public Lands
- 1841 – 301-4

New South Wales – Social Life
- 1840 Ap. – 250

Stanley, Edward Geoffrey see Derby, E.G. Stanley

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Rectory Chettle
Woodyates, Dorset
Aug. 22, 1836

Sir,

Since I had the pleasure of receiving your answer, I have had many applications, from fine able bodied agricultural Labourers to emigrate to New South Wales. Most of them however are single men, and seem to wish to go out unmarried. A widower also wishes much to emigrate, with a daughter of the age of 16 and two Boys above the age of 7 years, if you will accept and encourage them to go out. He shewed me two Certificates of his character, from two different Farmers, who had employed him for the last 7 years as a good, honest, agricultural Labourer.

A Carpenter & Wheelright also,

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has been with me on the subject, and would probably be found a very useful person, as working well, I understand, at his Trade, and in making implements of Husbandry & is also a Lawyer. He has a wife and one child ab. 7 months old. I don’t know what number you would like to engage, but I think a dozen good agricultural labourers, and shepherds might be obtained from the neighbouring villages, as wages in this County are very low, and there is a general prejudice among the Poor against the operations of the new Poor Laws.

Poor fellows, they come and tell me their tales of difficulty sometimes as not being able to obtain work & at the same time can get no parochial assistance and ask me about going ahead

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from knowing that I have been abroad which I was for a few years as Chaplain to the Honble. The Hudson Bay Company and had the pleasure of meeting Capt. Franklin in his first Polar Expedition.

The particulars stated in your lre. which I read to some of the applicants, appeared to be satisfactory to them. They ask me when they may be expected to go shd. they engage so to do, and whether the ship is likely to call at Portsmouth, which is the most convenient seaport to them – or at Bristol.

Any further particulars you may be pleased to mention I will communicate to them, and I think some Pamphlets might be very usefully distributed in this neighbourhood, if you will have the goodness to direct a Parcel to be sent for me, under cover, directed to Mr Hipp, Bookseller, Blandford, to be left at Messrs. Whittaker & Co., Ave Maria Lane.

Believe me, I am,
Yours faithfully
John West

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To
Major Macarthur
Junior United Service Club
Charles Street
London.

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Chettle, Woodyates, Dorset

Sept. 3rd 1836

Dear Sir,

I am obliged, unavoidably, to leave home early on Tuesday morn and shall not return till the Saturday. Should you prolong your intended visit to the County, or should it be deferr’d till the week after next, I should have pleasure in getting the labourers, you might wish to see, and the wheelwrights, to meet you any morning at Chettle, you might appoint, on the subject of Emigration.

Believe me, Sir,
Yrs. faithfully,
J. West

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To
Major Macarthur,
Jnr. U.S. Club,
Charles Street,
London.

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Chettle
Woodyates
Dorset

Sept. 14th 1836

Dear Sir,

The young girl you saw in the Parlour on the subject of Emigration, has called on me again, to enquire whether, as her mother had promised to take her child, you would engage her as a Servant
for N.S. Wales. I told her I cd. say nothing further on the subject, but wd. take an opportunity in writing, to mention to you what she requested. My object in writing now is to say that a young married Shepherd (the son of the Shepherd of my Parish, who has

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had the entire charge of from 1500 to 2000 sheep on Chettle Estate for many years past) wishes to be engaged as a Shepherd for N.S. Wales. I can strongly recommend him to you as thoroughly understanding the management of sheep, as having grown up as an assistant Shepherd with his Father and as being a good shearer. He is 25 yrs of age, his wife 24 yrs, without any child. He is a strong, hale young man, of good character. I have mentioned to him what were the conditions and encouragement you had expressed to those who had engaged with you to go out, but I told him I did not know exactly what wages, as a good Shepherd, & Shearer, he wd. receive, but this you wd. inform me.

While I have been writing this lre.

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The young Shepherds sister, of the age 21 yrs, has called and expressed a wish to go out with her Brother & says that she is a good dairy woman – another Brother she thinks is also likely to go, who is a good Shepherd & Shearer. There is a large family of them, but one of the most industrious best families in my Parish.

Should these applications continue, the number you wish to send out will be obtained in this neighbourhood, wch. I should like that they might all form one company for embarkation at Portsmouth.

Believe me,
Dear Sir,
Yrs. faithfully
John West

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To
Major Macarthur
Jnr. U.S. Club
Charles Street
London

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Parliament Place, Weston

September 17th 1836

Dear Sir,

I wrote a few hurried lines yesterday from the Colonial Office, mentioning that I had received your favour of the 14th Inst.; and I now beg to thank you for it in a more regular manner.

It will not, I am sorry to say, be in my power to take the young Girl, in whose favour her appearance had prepossessed me. It might throw discredit upon the whole Proceedings. If she could prevail on some young man of respectability to marry her, it would be the best sort of evidence of her having become an industrious and right minded Person, & I have no doubt she might obtain a passage to the Australian Colonies.

I have already said I shall be happy to take the young Shepherd, with his wife, Sister and Brother. I cannot promise that for the first year he shall receive more than £15 with the allowance before stated of 7 lbs of meat, & 11 lbs of Flour to each

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of the men, and during the first six months half this allowance to the wife. The privilege of keeping a cow & of cultivating a piece of garden ground, and of keeping Pigs and Poultry about their Cottage, on condition of their getting into no mischief, and being solely for their own site, would form part of the engagement with them. Eventually, say after five years the Shepherd should receive a small flock of sheep on credit, to be paid for by instalments, at the market price of the day, and the Agricultural Labourers should at the end of the same Term, have small Farms, in one of the most fertile districts in the Colony. The certainty of being enabled by steady & deserving conduct to establish themselves & families, at the end of a few years in comfort and independence are the inducements held out to them, and not the expectation of higher wages than I have named, until they have acquired experience in the bode of treating sheep in the Colony, and or in the various courses of Field Husbandry practised there. Indeed in many respects, it requires a man to prelearn what he may have been at great pains to acquire here. I have been to

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day making enquiries respecting a vessel going to New South Wales, and find that about the middle of October, there will be an excellent opportunity. If I should succeed in engaging from 25 to 30 Persons, the Master wd touch at Spithead. I send a sort of Plan of the Birthes which are about 6 feet square for each couple. Their young children and or female relatives might sleep in the same Cabin. There will be Beds and Blankets put on board by me for each Birth. I should be glad to know the Persons who wish to go in the same Cabin together, that they may be made of proportionate size, and sleeping places put up accordingly. Many vessels have had two married couples in a Cabin of 6 feet sq., but I would not agree to it, although in accommodating them in the manner I have proposed the Expense will be upwards of £40 for each couple. The whole of this I would defray, with an understanding however that the Persons for whom I incur this Expense, will continue in my service for three years. That if they quit it before the expiration of the first year they are to repay as soon as they

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may have it in their power & pound;15 for each Pair. If before the expiration of the second year £10, and before the expiration of the third year £5. This will be left entirely to their own right feeling, for I wish them to be bound by no legal obligation. I should be glad to have as soon as possible certificates from the Parish Registers of the ages of the Parties, which must not be more than 30 yrs. The Testimonials of Character must also be signed by the Clergyman & a respectable character of note in the places of their Residence. These are to enable me to recover the Bounty offered by Govt. in aid and encouragement of Emigration.

I will only add further that there will be a medical man on board the vessel, and unless during sickness neither wine nor spirits will be allowed them. But the Ration of Eatables will be abundant. The withholding indent spirits is really an advantage to them. I send a list of the Persons who I understand to be engaged to me. If an opportunity offers, I should be glad if you would have the goodness to explain my [indecipherable] to them.

Believe me, Dear Sir
Very truly yrs.
Edw. Macarthur

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Chettle Woodyates, Dorset
Sept. 22, 1836

Dear Sir,

I believe the young men you saw are abt. to be married. I have received a very high testimonial to the character of Arnold, and also of Elias Thorn. I believe Shepherd Smith & wife will go, but the mother has interfered and requested that the daughter, sister to Smith, may not go out this year. Will you inform me how I shall send the Certificates of age & character to you, as I receive them. My principle object in writing by to-days post is to mention to you other applications that have reached me. The first is that of

James Newe - age 23 yrs.
Wife – 22 – sister of Elias Thorns wife
One child – age 4 yrs.
Second Child – age 1 yr.

This couple are very desirous of going wth. the party, so much so that in bringing me a very satisfactory Certificate he told me

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this morning, that he had already disposed of some of his goods. I told him he shd. not have done this till I had heard frm. you. I suppose however there will be no impediment in the way of his going.

2. Application that of Wm. Illett – Farm Servant aged 18 yrs.
If you approve (as the young men will marry you mentioned) he may go out single, as one unmarried woman is Mr. Arnold’s Cousin.

3. That of Joseph Thorn – farm Servant, first Cousin to Elias Thorn – married I believe – age 29 yrs.

4. That of Samuel Wright – aged 28 yrs. Shepherd & good Shearer
Ann – his wife – 27 yrs.
4 Children – Sarah 7 yrs.
James – 5 yrs.
Jane – 3 yrs.
Charlotte – 3 months.

This family wish to accompany Arnolds as acquainted with them.

5. That of Peter Gurde, age 17 yrs., Shepherd

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and a good shearer – wishes to go out as a single lad and hopes to get a Cousin or female relation of good character to go out with him.

The other application is from Wm. Hoskins, aged 29 – of good character & industrious man, who very much wishes to go out with your party of Emigrants, is at present a widower wth. 4 Children, but wd. probably marry if you will accept him – a good Farm Servant.

Marianne – 14 yrs
Thomas – 12 yrs
James – 10 yrs
Sarah – 8 yrs

A gentleman, in whose Parish Hoskins lives has promised to give 10 and supply the family wth. Clothes, shd. you be pleased to insert his name in your list.

I am making enquiries for a Blacksmith.

Will you be kind enough to give me an early answer, and in the course of next week, I hope to send you the names of those who will engage to go. In haste,

Yours truly
John West

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Since I wrote this, a good looking lad of 19 yrs has called on me wishing to go out to N.S.W. as a groom. He is single, tells me he can get a good character and thoroughly understands the management of a Horse.

To
Major Macarthur,
Junr. U.S. Club
Charles Street
London

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Chettle Woodyates, Dorset
Sept. 26, 1836

Dear Sir,

Permit me to thank you for the very kind and liberal present of the wine. I really feel much obliged.

Tho it is at times a little troublesome, yet I have always felt convinced that in assisting the poor fellows to engage on the liberal terms you offer them in Emigration, I was benefitting their condition, and opening to them a door of hope, of getting out of a hard servitude in Poverty, to some little independence for themselves and families, by honest steady persevering industry.

The farmers are the most provoking race of men I ever had to do with. They are now endeavouring to prevent, if they could, some of the young men going out by persuading them not to go to such a transporting Country &c &c. It will have however little or no effect, I believe.

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I am not yet able to give you a complete list of the Persons actually engaged to go out, but I hope to do so the latter end of the week, or by next Monday’s Post. I have seen to-day, and the end of last week, the following persons on the subject –

Arnold – wife & wife’s cousin and one child – 3 Persons
Elias Thorn & wife – 2 Persons
George Vincent & wife – 2 Persons
(not Blanchard, illegitimate, and baptized in his Mother’s name, Vincent, tho called Blanchard)
Shepherd Smith & wife – 2 Persons
Jas. Newe & wife & Two Children – 2 Persons
Samuel Wright & wife & four Children – 2 Persons

Wright is a very valuable Servant and an excellent Shepherd & Shearer of Sheep, with Smith whom I know.

One unmarried man – 1 Person
Wth. single Woman, is Arnold’s Cousin

The other persons who have applied to me, I shall probably see in the course of this week.

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As the Board of Guards is promised to give 10 and some Clothing to Hoskins if he emigrated, I have given this morning a note to the same Board stating that Wright was engaged to go to N.S.W. with his family and ask’d if they wd. give the same sum, wth. some Clothing for their voyage. I thought it well to do this, as it wd. relieve the expense of sending them out & at the same time assist the Emigrants who are both from the same Parish.

With respect to Hoskins, he carries wth. him an excellent character as a good farm Servant but tho’ he wishes much to go out wth. the party, he is afraid he shall not be able to meet with a suitable wife, who is willing to Emigrate. He will let me know however by next Saturday. I admire the good feelings of the man in speaking to me of his strong attachment to his wife, who died some months ago & that he had no wish to marry again. Should this be the case, and he is prevented going, wd. you engage his Eldest Daughter to be of the party, to go out with Wright’s family, who know her well as a steady

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active smart girl. She called on me this morn & seems very desirous of going – age 15. A man of the name of Norris known well to Arnold, wd. go out if you wd. engage him & wanted a Lawyer. He has a wife & 4 Children. I told him I wd. mention his application. I have told those who have come to me again & again not to trifle with me on the subject or to disappoint you in giving to me their names

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for Emigration.

Believe me, Dear Sir
Yrs. truly and obliged
John West

P.S. Should Hoskins daughter go at 15, shd. I engage a single man, as wth. Mrs. Arnolds Cousin.

To
Major Macarthur
Junr. U.S. Club
Charles Street
London

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London
September 17th 1836

Sir,

I hasten to thank you for your Letter of the 24th Inst. informing me that you had received numerous applications from Farm Servants for Employment in my Service in New South Wales. Many persons of very excellent character have already been engaged for me; and at this moment I am not aware whether there is a vacancy, as this year I am limited to 12 married Couple. However if two or three young men. under 30 yrs who have wives would who can produce a Certificate of Character from the Clergyman of their Parish, as well also as from their present Employers, that they are Persons

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of good Character, and skilful Husbandmen & would go over to Mr. West at Chettle Rectory, he could inform them whether there is still a vacancy for them.

The Terms on which I have engaged entered into with the Farm Servants who have already engaged themselves are the following.

Employment during good conduct for the 1st year at the Rate of £15 per annum.

A Cottage Rent Free, a plot of ground for a Garden, the Right of grazing a Cow upon such Lands, to keep Poultry and Pigs, if exclusively

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for their own use. Also an Allowance of 11 lbs of Flour weekly and of 7 lbs of fresh Beef or Mutton. And after five years in my Employment to have the option of taking a small Farm, the Rent payable in money or Farm Produce, as may be agreed.

These Servants, in whole good Faith, I have placed every confidence, are bound to me by no legal agreement. If they think they can better themselves, they will be at liberty to quit my Employment from the moment of their landing in the Colony. But there is an understanding

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with them, however, if they quit my Service before the expiration of one year, that they are to repay me for Expenses and Risk of the voyage £15 from the wages they may earn whether in my or in any other Persons service. If before the Expiration of Two Years to repay £10 and if before the Expiration of Three £5.

Their wages are to commence from the day of their landing in N.S. Wales, and during the voyage thither they are to be subject to no charge.

During the first Six Months after their landing their wives are to have one half the quantity of Provisions of their Husbands. Although I may not be enabled to engage with more than a few Persons more this year, the next I have no doubt I shall be in a Position to find Employment for a great many.

I am, Sir,
Truly Yours
Ed. Macarthur

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Chettle
Sept. 27th 36

Dear Sir,

Mr. Grove is an active Magistrate & influential gentleman in the neighbourhood & wd. promote the Emigration of poor industrious families, or the allowance wd. not have been promised to Wright. When Hoskins called on me, he said 10s. was to be allowed for Passage money, besides a gift of Clothes, but this does not appear to be the case. I send you this note that there may be no mistake. Wright you have engaged, will I think prove a valuable Servant, he asks me to let his wife make the Clothes for her children & he will bring me the Bills for the purchase of the things, that I may pay them, & shew them afterwards to the Board of Guardians. I told her I shd. consult you on the subject & ask as you suggested, relative to the 10s. as to the best way of it being expended. Hoskins thinks he shall not succeed in meeting with a suitable position, but wd. very much to be of your party of Emigrants. He says his Eldest Daughter has managed his family affairs well since her mother’s death & thinks wd. continue to do so with those who emigrate. J.W.

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Should it fall under yr. arrangement at all to engage him, I think the Board wd. allow you some passage money, he is an excellent farm Servt. I engaged last night another young promising Couple, who will marry in abt. a fortnight.

Joseph Thorn & wife. It will not give me a great

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deal of trouble, if I go with the party to the ship from Poole, it will probably save them some expense & the poor fellows are much pleased wth. the thought of it, as they want someone of influence over them.

Yrs. very truly
John West

[Left side of page]
Pray excuse the hasty scrawl I have written to be in time for the Post. I suppose the Certificate of age is only required at the [indecipherable].

To
Major Macarthur,
Junr. U.S. Club
Charles Street
London

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Mr. Grove has mentioned to the Board the contents of Mr. Wests Letter with regard to Hoskins. The Parish are very anxious to get him engaged to go to New South Wales with Mr. Macarthur as Servant but if he will not take him without a wife perhaps it is needless to expect to get to go now.

With regard to Samuel Wright the Parish will advance £10 for him and will be much obliged to Mr. West to get Mr. Macarthur to take the money for him, or perhaps Mr. West would do so that it may be laid out to the best advantage for the Man & his Family, & that the Parish thereby

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may be certain, that Samuel Wright fulfils his engagement with Mr. Macarthur.

There are other People who have applied here, viz Wm. Gurd, wife & two Children & the Parish are inclined to do the best they can to get him engaged with Mr. Macarthur if possible.

Tisbury Union
Monday 26th Sept. 1836

Tuesday
Gurd’s wife called on me this morning, but I told her, as her Husband was 40 yrs old, it was impossible for him & his family to be sent out with yr. engaged Emigrants. She did not like the idea of going out under the Government Regulation, in another ship. The other Gurd with a large family is engaged upon higher wages at Home. I am glad of this that the Poor man at Home will be benefitted with those who emigrate. J.W.

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6.4.38

Dear Sir

I trust it will not be disagreeable to you to receive a few lines from me, and to see with what sincere attachement myself as well as Mr. and Mrs Duringer always think of you. Your emigrants will, by this time, have reached the place of their destination, and I wish with all my heart, they may not disappoint your hopes. If they have been lucky, they will land at Sidney, as I often heard you say, in about 18-20 weeks. They must now of course, either be there or very near to it, but you will have to wait about 5 more months before you can have any news of them. The letters they have written from London to their friends in the Rhinegau have caused so favourable an impression upon all that, since that day, a very great number of families have been here with Mr. Duringer to enlist themselves for the service of the Herr Major. Mr. Duringer says you would be obliged to hire three steamers, if you would take all of them with you to England, you would be able to form a complete regiment of them.

[Page 38]

As your leaving this neighbourhood I had an intelligence of it printed in the frankfurt Journal, which has passed in some other german papers. But the other advertissment we had composed for our Wiesbaden Paper has been refused publication, and I thought it wisest, to keep it so long with me, till I should hear of your coming to make new engagements, so have it then published by a frankfurt Paper. You will therefore have the goodness to write to me some time before your arrival, to give me time to prepare matters for you. But I suppose you are not inclined to undergo a new so troublesome a task before you have had good intelligence of the success of that last one.

Spring is now drawing near and my little garden in its poor nacked state reminds me of the promise of our kind general, Mr. Elphinstone, of whose bounty my garden expects some ornaments

[Page 39]

that will be the pride of Wiesbaden and the glory of old England. Pray have the goodness to remember me kindly to him, and to tell him how thankful I should be for some fine Dhallias or other seeds. As the streamers now run regularly it will be easy for me to have something from England in a very short time.

Mr. and Mrs. Duringer charged me with many kind compliments to you.

I am dear Sir
Yours very sincerely
C. Elsenan

Wiesbaden, Ap. 6, 1838

[Page 40]

Major Macarthur
Union Service Club
London

[Page 41]

Chettle, Oct. 3rd 1836

Dear Sir

I have been waiting in hope of seeing a Blacksmith, who has been strongly recommended, before the Post went, but as he lives 8 or 9 miles off, it may probably be the evening before he calls, if he really means to emigrate. As I promised however, I send a list of those Persons who are actually engaged in your service, and who are making arrangements to undertake the voyage, when it is piped for them to embark.

Arnold’s wife’s cousin refused to go, which is rather provoking as I had engaged William Ellett, age 18 yrs, to go out as single, she being an unmarried woman, and the lad has actually got assistance from the Parish in Clothing for the voyage. He is a good quiet industrious farm or indoor Servant,

[Page 42]

a Parishioner of mine, and should there be any awkwardness in his going out as single, I will arrange with him to have what expenses you think should be deducted from his wages of service in the Colony.

Wheelwright
Arnold and wife – one child

Lawyer
Henry Norris & wife – Four children

Farm Servants
Elias Thorn & wife
George Vincent & wife
James Newe & wife – Two Children
Richd. Weeks & wife – Two Children
Henry Gambleton & wife – Two Children
Benjn. Weeks & wife
Stephen Butt & wife
William Ellett – Single Man

Shepherds and Farm Servants
Thomas Smith & wife
Samuel Wright & wife – Four Children

[Page 43]

William Norris came today with his Brother Henry, says he has worked with him as a Lawyer, and is also a farm Servant, would be glad to accompany his Elder Brother to N.S. Wales, 20 yrs of age, and will marry and go out, if you will engage him, provided the ship does not sail before the 23rd Inst. giving him 3 Sundays to be asked at Church.

I have another young married couple, who will engage in your service, should you wish to engage them.

A married man, Brother to Stephen Butt, with 6 children, has also just called, with a message from the Honbe. Mr. Damen, expressing a wish that you would be kind enough to get him & his family out to N.S. Wales, in the same ship that takes out your party. These men are both valuable steady men, and if it

[Page 44]

could be arranged for them to go together, Mr. Damen says he will pay the passage money for him. He is 32 yrs of age, wife & 6 Children.

Believe me,
Dear Sir,
Yours very truly
John West

[Top of page]
There is quite a spirit of Emigration awakened among the People around me. Parties call on me almost daily.

To
Major Macarthur
Junr. U.S. Club
George Str.
London

[Page 45]

Chettle, Oct. 7th 1836

Dear Sir,

I believe the following list of the ages of the Children is correct –

Arnold, Sarah – 2 years
Norris, Marianne – 9 years
Norris, Daniel – 7 years
Norris, George – 4 years
Norris – Child – Two Months

Newe, Marie – 4 years
Newe, Charlotte – 1 year & a half

Wright, Sarah – 7 years
Wright, James – 5 years
Wright, Jane – 3 years
Wright, Charlotte – Three Months

John Weeks, Eliza – 2 years
Weeks, Marianne – Eight Months

[Page 46]

Ricd. Weeks, William – 3 years
Weeks, Eliza – Eight Months

Gumbleton, Caroline – 4 years
Gumbleton, Emily – fifteen months

I should think it very advisable that you should provide Beds and Bedding for the party in London.

Can you obtain for them Bibles and Prayer Books from any religious Institution in town, or I will make an application to their supply, as Emigrants.

I wrote immediately on the receipt of your last lre. to ascertain whether Colonel Damen will pay the Passage money for the family he mentioned & shall probably be able

[Page 47]

to write you the answer the beginning of next week.

Shepherd Wright asked me if he might take his favourite & much valued by him, sheep dog. I told him I thought not, but as he wished it, I wd. in writing, mention his request to you.

I have not yet seen the Blacksmith but am still enquiring about one.

I have been consulting Captn. Maitland of the Navy, a friend & neighbour of mine. He thinks the best way will be to take the Emigrants in a couple of light waggons, to Southampton, a distance of about 40 miles from here, that they may take the Steamer from thence to the ship, or Cowes. It is sometimes a tedious passage from Poole to the Isle of Wight, & there is this objection to their going that way, they would probably get thoroughly sea sick, beating up in a Hoy, and be put aboard the ship, probably some of them more half dead than alive.

The Ladies at the Tea Table

[Page 48]

[Bottom of page]
last night begged that I would express their thanks for some very fine flavoured Tea, which they received with the Cask [cash ?] you kindly sent me.

Believe me, Dear Sir,
Yours truly
John West

[Top of page]
Will send the Certificates by mail on Monday.

[Page 49]

Chettle, Oct. 10, 1836

Dear Sir,

I send by the mail this eveng. the Certificates of Baptisms, and of the character of the Emigrants, which I have received –

Norris’s of Baptism – did get sent to me, but shall get it - assures me he is not 30.

Gumbleton’s also – will be sent to me. I know they will be satisfactory.

Butts also – His, I am persuaded will be the same.

I hope you will find what you receive satisfactory. Norris’s Brother, I mentioned, became fearful that the time would be too limited for him to marry. I have therefore substituted in his stead the name of Thomas Cox in the list, wife, and one child, age 11 months. He is a Parishioner

[Page 50]

of mine, and I am happy to say, that he is one of the strongest, most industrious, steady farm Servants in the Parish. I can also speak particularly in favour (as known also to me as Parishioners) of Shepherd Smith and William Elliott.

Martha Gumbleton, single woman, aged 16 is engaged to emigrate, with her Uncle, Henry Gumbleton, & go out under his & his wife’s protection. Her engagement my probably make it more favourable for Elliott, as both going out single.

I hear nothing of the Blacksmith.

The following are the parties, as they now stand on the list, waiting for Embarkation.

[Page 51]

Arnold – wife – one child
Norris – wife – four children
Elias Thorn & wife
George Vincent & wife
Thos. Smith & wife
Jas. Newe & wife – Two Children
James Wright & wife – four children
George Bradley & wife
John Weeks & wife – Two children
Richd. Weeks & wife – Two Children
Henry Gumbleton & wife – Two Children
Stephen Butt & wife
Benjn. Weeks & wife
Thos. Cox & wife – one child
William Elliott – single – 18 yrs
Martha Gumbleton – single – 16

14 families – 28
Single Persons – 2
Children – 18

48

I remain, Dear Sir,
Yrs. vy. truly
John West

[Page 52]

To
Major Macarthur
Junior U.S. Club
London

[Page 53]

Stickland, Oct. 14

Sir

The ages of G. Butts children are as follows, yrs, 13, 11, 3, 6, 4 and one of 2 months. Would you have the kindness to let us know the precise sum needful for the expence of the passage and likewise if you will permit twenty pounds of it to be deducted from Butts wages which Mr. West proposes and Butt gladly consents to. Is the bedding found for each married couple or for each two of the children? I conclude you mean to furnish what is needful. I am sorry to be

[Page 54]

so troublesome but I assure you I have had my own share in the trouble. I will let you know our final determination immediately on receiving your answer to this but I do not contemplate our being obliged to hinder the emigration now we have gone so far in our preparations.

I remain Sir
Your very faithful Servant
William Churchill

If I understand right Stephen Butt & his intended wife’s passage will be paid by you.

[Page 55]

Major McArthur
Junior United Service Club
London

[Page 56]

Chettle Woodyates, Dorset

Oct. 17th 1836

Dear Sir,

As there was so much uncertainty expressed to me at the arrangements for Butt’s brother being of the party of Emigrants, I thought it best that Churchill shd. write to you on the subject. I have not to this moment heard anything to the contrary, but that Stephen Butt will fulfill his engagement, and embark with the rest whether his Brother goes or not.

I think nothing can be better, than what you mention for their employment, during the calm days of their voyage. It must be highly beneficial in every point of view, and add greatly to their comfort in the articles they may receive in remuneration for their industry.

Arnold’s wife, I understand is a good needlewoman, and was apprenticed to a glove maker. She can take charge of the material to be made up by the women, who can all work at the needle, in making up shirts, and plain articles of Clothing.

The two Shepherds, Smith & Wright, can both, I believe

[Page 57]

net, and probably one or two more, so that in netting or in making wool Bags, all the men may be employed on Board ship as you wish, and I hope will feel grateful for your kind consideration in laying in materials for their advantage, as an inducement, and a reward for their Industry.

Shepherd Wright was greatly pleased when I told him there was a passage provided for his favourite Dog. Shepherd Smith also, has his favorite fondly attached Dog, and hopes he may be permitted to take him.

I will make application to a Society in London of which I am a Member for a grant of Prayer Books and others for the Emigrants, so that with the bibles, enough Books will be provided for them.

I think no Emigrant ever left England under better conditions and prospects. Lord Shaftesbury, and Mr. Sturt sent me 5s. each to expend for them in any way I thought best and the several Parishes have subscribed (to which they belong) rather liberally for the purchase of useful and necessary Clothing, in their Emigration.

[Page 58]

I have not yet been able to ascertain abt. the Post from Southampton. I think the ltre. wd. reach me from thence the following morning. There is a Coach every Mondays, Wednesdays & Fridays from Southampton that passes Thickthorn Inn on each of these days but as I may probably have to write you again before the Ship sails, I shall then be able to give you the particulars.

When the party are called upon to leave their Homes, and their relations, my wish is that they shd. all rendezvous at Chettle, meet in the morning at 9 o’Clock, attend the morning service at the Church, when I would address them, and immediately afterwards they should proceed in covered light waggons (my own and Mr. King’s, the Clergyman you saw) to Ringwood, a distance of abt. 15 miles from here, where they shd,. stop 3 or 4 Hours and partake of some refreshment, and then bend their way to Southampton, so as to arrive by seven or eight o’Clock the next morning, and go direct to the Steam Boat for the Ship.

My promise of seeing the Emigrants to the Ship gave so much satisfaction to the Parties and relations, that I shall have a pleasure in fulfilling it.

Believe me, Dear Sir,
Yrs. truly
John West

[Page 59]

[Bottom of page]
P.S. I quite agree with you in considering it not advisable that single men should emigrate to N.S.W. or I could have succeeded in the supply of shepherds.

Almost daily have I Persons at my door begging that I would assist them in Emigrating to N.S. Wales that I have been really

[Top of page]
obliged to beg of them, not to think about it and to tell others not to travel 7, 8 and 10 miles to speak to me on the subject as I could not be satisfied in assisting them abroad, without there was a regular & satisfactory arrangement, as Engaged Servants, similar to your own.

To
Major Macarthur
Junior U.S. Club
London

Single

[Page 60]

I have advanced Twenty Pounds for this Family. Perhaps some Bounty may be recovd. for the children, but the Parents are too old being more than thirty.

Stickland, Oct. 18, 1836

Sir,

I have just heard from our Overseer that the parish has consented to raise the sum required for the passage of both our emigrants and their families. Stephen Butt is absent but his brother saw him yesterday and assures me that Stephen will consent to your proposal respecting Georges family. They will therefore

[Page 61]

God willing, join Mr. Wests party and proceed to Cowes at the appointed time. Should you have occasion to write to me or Mr. West would you have the kindness to mention if there is any provision in the Colony for the sick & aged and also what means of religious instruction your people have. I ask this because I hope we have only agreed to make a beginning when we send the Butts.

[Page 62]

Believe me in haste,

Yours faithfully
Wm. Churchill

I suppose the money required had better be sent by Mr. West to the vessel. If you wish any other arrangement please to write and say so. I have said that we have agreed to raise the money for both their passages but you understand that we are to pay only for George’s passage.

[Page 63]

Correspondence respecting Emigrants from Brothers.

Major MacArthur
Junior United Services Club
London

[Page 64]

London, Friday, October 21st 1836

Dear Sir,

I should have thanked you for your very satisfactory Letter of the 7 Inst., some days since, but I have been almost hourly occupied in making arrangements for the Spiritual and temporal well being of our Emigrants during their Passage to New South Wales, on board the Brothers. They are now complete, and, I believe, I have done all that depends on one to insure both those objects; and when you witness all I have done for them, I am sure you will think I have set about it, “con amore".

The Captain assured me this morning that the ship would leave the Docks on Tuesday next and as she is to make no stay at Gravesend she may be expected to arrive at Cowes Roads on the following Saturday, so that on Monday week, the 31st Inst. the Party should be prepared to leave their Homes. But you will receive a Letter to inform you of the arrival of the vessel at Cowes.

Perhaps you would have the

[Page 65]

kindness to make my excuses to Mr. Churchill for not replying to his Letter. I have arranged for the Passage of Butt and his six Children for which the Captain is to receive £60 on their embarkation at Cowes, £20 of which I have agreed to pay. Tell Mr. Churchill that at the end of the little Pamphlet I sent him, he will find an account of all the Colonial Establishments. I am not aware of any Establishment for the Sick and Aged. But few are Sick, and none are Poor, in the English sense of the word in New So. Wales. The Children should be in a condition to support their Parents. With respect to religious Instruction we have the advantage, upon the Estates of my Family of being, at no great distance from more than one Church. And the Government had promised its aid to build one upon the Estate of “Camden" itself. Besides it has been the practise for one of the Family to read Prayers every Sunday to such of our People, as do not or cannot attend Church. Tell Mr. Churchill, also with my compliments to him, that I sincerely trust we are only making a beginning with the Butts.

[Page 66]

Chettle, Oct. 23rd 1836

Dear Sir

In receiving the Papers by yesterday’s mail, allow me to say, that I think you have made every arrangement, and taken everything into consideration that liberality and kindness could suggest for the comfort and encouragement of the Emigrants, in their Emigration.

I will get the Promissory Notes signed by the parties, and bring them, with the Certificates of the women with me to Southampton.

The Shepherds, I am persuaded will be glad of their change, and from what I know of them, will pay every possible attention to their little flock on Shipboard.

A light cart, such as we could meet with

[Page 67]

in this neighbourhood would not contain 15 Lambs, I think, but I will enquire, and if not, I will send a light waggon and two Horses with a careful, confidential man that I can get, who shall be at Pythouse early on Thursday morning.

The little flock I will see shall be taken care of at Chettle and be of the Party with the Emigrants to Southampton.

The Shepherds are now on a visit to their friends at a distance of 8 or 9 miles, so that I send a man who is a judge of Sheep, and will take equal care of the Lambs.

I am glad that the movement of the Party is likely to be on next Monday. They are all now very desirous of starting, and it will suit well the beginning of a week.

[Page 68]

I find that a Letter put into the Post Office at Southampton, will reach me via Salisbury the next morning.

I hope to see Mr. Churchill in the course of the week, which will give me an opportunity of seeing the Butts, and at the same time the money may be given me for George’s passage and his family, for the Captain.

Believe me, Dear Sir,
Yours Truly
John West

P.S. I read your Lre. of yesterday, and the regulations on Board the Ship, and I need not say, that the Party to whom I read them, were fully satisfied, and a general burst of applause took place at the mention of the 2 pieces of fat Beef for Xmas. How truly English.

[Page 69]

To
Major Macarthur
Junior U.S. Club
Charles Street
London

[Page 70]

Notes of Hand of Emigrants by the Brothers.

James & William Macarthur Esq.

[Page 71]

[Blank page]

[Page 72]

Chettle, Oct. 24th, 1836

£10

On Demand I promise to pay to the Order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Ten Pounds Sterling – a third part of which, namely Three pounds six Shillings and Eight pence, is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival in Sydney.

John West, Minister
Witness

The mark X of William Elliott

[Page 73]

James & William Macarthur Esq.
Edward Macarthur
Novr. 11th 1836

[Page 74]

Chettle, Dorset, Octr. the 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness –
John West, Minister

George Bradley
Thomas Smith

[Page 75]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 76]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

Thomas Cox
Samuel Wright

[Page 77]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 78]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

George Bradley
The mark X of Richard Weeks

[Page 79]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 80]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

John West – Minister

George Bradley
The mark X of George Vincent

[Page 81]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 82]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

George Bradley
The mark X of James Newes

[Page 83]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 84]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

Benjamin Weeks
George Bradley

[Page 85]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 86]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

George Bradley
The mark X of Elias Thorn

[Page 87]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 88]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

George Bradley
Benjamin Weeks

[Page 89]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 90]

Chettle Oct. 24th 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West – Minister

George Bradley
The mark X of John Weeks

[Page 91]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 92]

Winterborne Stickland, Oct. 25, 1836

£25

On Demand I promise to pay to Edward Macarthur Esquire or his order Twenty five pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
William Churchill, Clerk

The mark of George Butt, X

[Page 93]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 94]

Winterborne Stickland, October 28, 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
William Churchill, Clerk

X The mark of Stephen Butt

[Page 95]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 96]

Chettle Novr. the 3rd, 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West, Minister

Samuel Arnold

[Page 97]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 98]

November 2, 1836, Long Critchill, Dorset

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Moss. King, Rector of Long Critchill, Dorset
Witness to the signature of Henry Gumbleton

Henry Gumbleton X his mark

[Page 99]

James & William Macarthur

Edward Macarthur
11th Novr. 1836

[Page 100]

Chettle, Oct the 26th, 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West, Minister

Thomas Cox

[Page 101]

James & William Macarthur

Edward Macarthur
11th Novr. 1836

[Page 102]

Chettle, Novr. 20th, 1836

£15

On Demand I promise to pay to the order of Edward Macarthur Esquire Fifteen pounds Sterling – five pounds of which is to be remitted for every year I pass in his or his Brothers’ Service in New South Wales, the period of my Service to commence from the date of my arrival at Sydney.

Witness
John West, Rector of Chettle

Henry Norris

[Page 103]

Edward Macarthur

[Page 104]

Memorandum given me by Mr. Benett as to Cottages, Small Farms, and Dairymen in New South Wales.

Pyt House
30th October, 1836

Grant a House and Half an Acre of Land for three Lives absolute, say at the Price of £15 payable in Labor or otherwise, with an Annual Quit Rent of One Shilling. On the death of one Life the Tenant to have the Right to put in an other Life on agreeing to a Fine of £5 to be paid in four Instalments. Forfeiture of Lease in case of any other Teniment being erected without Permission, of the Landlord, or any other Family than the Tenants being brought to dwell upon the Premises. Forfeiture of Lease also for a Felony committed by the Head of the Family.

[Page 105]

Family and the Landlord may resume the Lease on payment of £15, £10, or £5, according to the number of Lives in existence upon which the Lease is held. Alienation to be permitted, provided the Landlord has the Offer of Purchase at the Rate of £5 for each unexpired Life. If the renewal of an expired Life be not made within the year, the Landlord to have the Right of refusing such Renewal.

The House must be kept in repair by the Tenant, if he neglects to do so the Landlord to have the Right of resuming the Property, or payment of £5, for each unexpired Life, deducting the cost of repair from such resumption money.

Small Farms
Lay out a Series of small Farms, with each a plain good House and Offices, 400 Acres of Arrable Land, and 800 Acres attached of Sheep Pasturage but

[Page 106]

but unfit for Tillage.

Upon this Land the Tenant should be ensured a certain Price, for his Wheat, Indian Corn and Wool. Each Farmer should have Permission to fix twelve Families of Labourers within a reasonable distance of the Farm. Sheep to be sold the Farmer at the current Price of the Colony, to be paid in Produce in Four years. If cultivated according to the Fine Field System, Term of Lease determinable upon Twelve months Notice at the Termination of 10, 15, or 20 years – if according to the Four Field, 12, 16 or 20 years.

The Tenant to be permitted to sell Hay, but no Straw, nor Manure.

Sheep to be washed by the Landlord or washing paid for at his option.

Statements should be made of the average produce, and price of Wheat, Indian Corn, Hay, Wool, &c. with the number

[Page 107]

number of Sheep, on an average of years the Land will carry. The prices also of working Oxen, Horses and Farm Implements. If these were well known in England many young Farmers, who have skill but are without Capital might be induced to emigrate and with them Agricultural Servants, who would have greater confidence in leaving their Parishes, where the example was set by the Farmers, the next class above them.

Cattle might be let to Dairymen as in England – the Price of Butter might enable them to pay £8 per Head.

[Page 108]

The Lands described by the above Plan, are offered to be let on Leases for Terms of 99 years, to be determinable with the Lives of the three Persons to be named by the Tenants, and to be renewable for ever, on a fine of Two years Rent, to be paid on the Death of each Life. The Tenant of each Lot, to separate and fence off his Lott from the adjoining Lands. To build within two years a substantial Brick or Stone dwelling House on each Lot taken, and complete such House fit for Habitation; and no House of less expenditure thereon than £400; and no Trade or Business whatever to be carried on by Retail, without the consent of the Landlord and the Tenants of other next adjoining Lands then let. All Rates, Taxes, and Outgoings to be paid by the Tenant

[Page 109]

Tenant. All Houses, and Buildings as well as all Farms be at all Times kept in good and complete Repair at the Expense of the Tenant. The Lease to be void in case of unpayment of Rent or breach of Covenant.

The Lease and Counterpart to be prepared at the Expense of the Tenant, by Landlords Solicitors. An Abstract of the Landlords Title may be seen and inspected, and the Tenant may have a copy thereof, and copies of any of the Title Deeds at the Tenants Expense. The present Rent for which these lots are offered are per Foot, but the owner reserves to himself, the power of agreeing for more or less, as the different Sites, and the probable increase in value may authorize.

[Page 110]

Chettle Woodyates, Dorset

Nov. 4th 1836

Dear Sir,

I trouble you with a line to say, that should the Party not be summoned to Southampton on Monday, a line from you, that I might read to them, would I am sure be good.

They are all, as you can easily conceive, very anxious now to be on their voyage. I know of no murmuring however among them, nor the least intention to break their Engagement

[Page 111]

as Emigrants, beyond an anxious feeling for the subsistence of the day for themselves and families.

I will with pleasure accept your kind invitation at Southampton.

The Overseers of Stickland have placed 40s. in my hands for the Captain, for George Butt’s passage to N.S. Wales.

A very promising young married man, with 2 Children, related to Shepherd Smith, called on me yesterday and expressed a strong desire to join the party, but I told him that I thought there was no chance now of his being

[Page 112]

engaged by you, except one of the Party already engaged, should be prevented by illness, or decline going.

Yours, dear Sir,
Very truly
John West

[Page 113]

To
Major Macarthur
Post Office
Southampton

[Page 114]

Chettle, Novr. 8,. 1836

My dear Sir,

I do hope and trust that it will be no inconvenience to the Captain the party moving off from here on Thursday morng. as you mentioned in your Lre. of this morning, so as for them to Embark on the Friday.

Saturday would be an inconvenient day for me, in the difficulty I find I shd. have in returning afterwards for my official duties of the Sunday. It is an objectionable day also

[Page 115]

for the waggons, which are sent by myself. Rev. Mr. King (the Clergyman you saw at my House) and the Rev. Mr. Mason of an adjoining Parish, returning. If they were to arrive at Southampton so late as Saturday we shd. not like for them to return to our villages on the Sabbath day, and consequently it would add to our expense of keeping the Horses from home another day. And moreover, all the men have been without work for some time past, and those I have not employed, at least many of them with families, I have been obliged to give an order for them to receive Bread

[Page 116]

& Cheese to the amount of 1/0s. a day each to keep them from distress. As soon as the farmers found they had actually engaged to Emigrate, I am sorry to say they discharged them, saying they did not wish their young & able bodied Labourers to quit the Country. Let the old ones go, said they. “Ah Master, said one of the Emigrants, you likes the flour, and don’t care for the bran".

Under these circumstances I have sent to the party to arrive here at 10 oClock on Thursday morning, when the Poor fellows shall have a merry peal frm. my village Bells, Divine Service at ½ past Ten & start off at half past Eleven. I hope to be able to reach Southampton abt. 4 o’Clock and have so arranged the time of their travelling and for the Emigrants to arrive on the following

[Page 117]

[Bottom of page]
morning Early.

Believe me, dear Sir,
Yours very truly
John West

To
Major Macarthur
at Mr. Triggs
Upholsterer
High Street
Southampton

Tuesday

[Page 118]

Dear Sir,

The Bearer of this note is a good judge of Sheep and will aid your judgement in the selection of Lambs, I think, from Mr. Bennett’s flock.

He is employed by me on a small quantity of Glebe and should you think it advisable, and for the best that the Lambs shd. be brought here, so as for all to make one party,

[Page 119]

to arrive at the same time at Southampton, he can fetch them to-morrow.

I have not heard a word of dissatisfaction expressed yet as to the delay in starting, but at the same time they express a wish that they were off. I found one today without any employment and I was glad of an opportunity of setting him to work.

I think there will be no falling off from the number you have engaged to go.
I should be glad however, if the wind wd. veer round to the north

[Page 120]

or N.E. or East. Pray let me have the earliest information of the Ships arrival at Cowes, it will be scarcely possible for the Emigrants to start off the same day I receive the Ltre. of information, but the day after it may be accomplished, so as for them to arrive at Southampton the following morning at 7 or8 oClock.

Arnold, Norris the Sawyer, and Wright one of the Shepherds are now living with their friends 7 and 8 miles from Chettle, so that it wd. be almost impracticable to get them here the same day I received yr. Letter.

Yrs. very truly
John West

[Page 121]

To
Major Macarthur
at Pyt House

William Hoad
Major Macarthur’s Servant
P. 8.

[Page 122]

Memo. of Stores to be made up by Emigrants.

22 Pices [pieces] of double Sacking 137 yds. at 8d.
48 Needles
24 Palms
100 Rands of Twine
1 Doz. each Netting Pins & Needles
250 Mens Shirts to be charged 3/7d. ea. when made up
250 Womens Shirts to be charged 2/8 ea. when made up
2 Pieces of Stout Cotton 7½ per yard
500 Needles
9 lbs. Cotton Balls
3 Gross Shirt Buttons
12 Pence each to be allowed for making each Shirt, 7 Shirts making these as about the value of Two Shirts
8d. for each Shift – 4 Shifts making 2/8 or the value of One Shift
2½d. for making each Wool Bag
1/6 Netting One Rand of Twine

P.T.O.

[Page 123]

1. 14 – 14 Beds – 4 ft. by 6
15. 16 – 2 Beds – 2 ft. by 6
17. 25 – 9 Beds – 3 ft. by 4
1. 25 – 25 Marked I.M.A.
26 Cotton Counterpanes
9 7/4 Blankets numbered & marked I.M.A.
17 9/4 Blankets
15 Water Casks
16 Skids

These things Captain Towns promises to see delivered up with the Emigrants.

In
Southampton
Novr. 12th 1836

Extract of Letter – Open by Captain Towns

Pay £400 on safe landing at Sydney or Parramatta of the Party of Emigrants, that is to say £13.6.8 for each Adult there being, 30 such exclusive of George Butt and his wife whose Passage is paid in full.

E.W.M.

[Page 124]

Rate of wages for agricultural Labourers in the Parish of Boyton in County of Wilts.

First shepherd 11 per week
House rent free – but no harvest increase: at shearing & lamb cutting, supper & beer during the day, and some money gratuity from 5s. to £1. Head carter 10s. & house

House as below minus rent - £2.6.2

Keep of dog – 2d. a week – 8.8

Outgoings of course as below.

Threshers, Ploughmen &c., the usual farm servant.

Income per annum
8s. per week - £20.16.0
Hay harvest – 10s.
Corn harvest - £1.0.0
£22.6.0

House Outgoings
House rent 1s. per week - £2.12.0
Wood 8 scone fagots, 3s. pr. Scone - £1.4.0
Wear and tear of culinary utensils – pots & c. – 5.0
Brush or broom – 2.0
Soap – 6.0
Candles, 10 lbs of 10s to the lb. at 11d. – 9.2

House & general House expenses - £4.18.2

Carry over

[Page 125]

Income - £17.7.10

Cloathing

Man
1 smock frock – 4.0
1 Sunday coat in 2 years £1-5 – 12.6
1 Hat & cap or straw hat – 8.0
2 pr. of worsted stockings, – 5.0
1 pr 11s. of boots – 1 pr. 5s. shoes – 16.0
2 Shirts – 7 yds of calico 6d. – 6.0
2 Waistcoats – 7.6
4 Neck & handkerchiefs – 2.6
2 pr. of breeches – £1.0.0
garters or leggings – 5.0
Great coat will last 10 or 12 years – prime coat at 1-15, say, - 2.0

Mans cloathing - £3.12.6

Woman 1½ gowns, 9 yds of print at 6d. – 4.0
Calico 13 yds at 6d. – 5.0
Pr. of boots – 6.0
Pr. shoes – 5.0
Stockings 3 Pr. – 4.0
Under petticoating, flannel &c. – 10.0
Caps, hanchfs. &c. – 3.6
Bonnet – 4.0

£2.3.6

3.18.0
2.3.0

6.2.0

[Page 126]

Income - £11-5-10

Food
Rent of 15 Ph of Potatoe ground – 15-0
2 lbs of tea – 7-0
6 lbs of butter – 5-0
* Flour – 7-10-0
Cheese 12 lbs at 6d. – 6-0

9-3-0

Luxuries
1 lb of bacon on 52 Sundays at 6d. – 1-6-0
Salt – cabbage plants – 0-3-6
1 Quart of Beer 2d. once a week – 0-8-8
Sugar say 5 lbs at 7d. – 0-211

2-1-1

11.4.1
0.1.9

Balance for Contingencies
1-9

* The consumption of bread is much smaller than I could believe without positive knowledge. ½ sack of flour will last a man & his wife about 4 bakings which at once a fortnight will be two months. Flour is not about 50s. – the sack – Potatoes are the food, bread (for dinner at least) the relish.

[Page 127]

Wages &c. of a Cottager in Wiltshire

[Page 128]

1837
Mar. 1 – Mrs. J. Weeks – 1 Shirt
Mar. 13 – Mrs. B. Weeks – 3 Shirts
April 1 – Mrs. Norris – 5 Shirts
April 1 – Mrs. Arnold – 6 shirts
April 5 – Mrs. Wright – 6 Shirts

[Page 129]

160 Shifts.

[Page 130]

1836
Shirts and Shifts returned by Mrs. Bradley

Decr. 27 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 28 – 1 Shift do.
Decr. 31 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jan. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 17 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 23 – 2 Shifts do.
Jan. 25 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 30 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 3 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 4 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 7 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 18 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 20 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 21 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 24 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 27 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 2 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 13 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 15 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 24 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 30 – 2 Shirts do.
Aprl. 1 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 3 – 1 Shift do.

[Page 131]

Aprl. 4 – 2 Shifts returned.

Totle of Shirts returned made 22
Totle of Shifts returned made 22

1836
Mrs. Bradley received to keep
Dec. 31 – 1 shift do.

1837
Feby. 134 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 13 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 16 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 22 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 31 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 1 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 1 – 3 Shirts do.

Totle of Shirts to keep – 8
Totle of Shifts to keep - 6

[Page 132]

1837
Shirts & Shifts returned by Mrs. S. Butt

Jany. 24 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 26 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 27 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 2 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 4 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 11 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 17 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 18 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 20 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 22 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 2 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 13 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 25 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts returned made 11
Totle of Shifts returned made 12

[Page 133]

1836
Shirts and Shifts returned by Mrs. Cox

Dec. 21 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 23 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 26 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 31 - 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jan. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 14 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 21 – 2 Shifts do.
Jan. 24 – 2 Shifts do.
Jan. 26 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 3 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 4 -1 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 13 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 14 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 25 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 2 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 11 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 25 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 27 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts returned made 17
Totle of Shifts returned made 17

[Page 134]

1837
Mrs. Cox received to keep

Feby. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 15 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 16 – 4 Shirts do.
Mar. 22 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 31 – 1 Shift do.
Apri. 1 – 2 Shirts do.

Totle of Shirts to keep 89
Totle of Shifts to keep 3

[Page 135]

1836
Shirts and Shifts returned by Mrs. Gumbleton

Dec. 22 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 24 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 27 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 29 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 31 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jan. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 23 – 1 Shifts do.
Jan. 26 – 1 Shifts do.
Feby. 2 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 11 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 12 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 14 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 27 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 28 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 2 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 11 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 24 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 29 – 1 Shirt do.
Aprl. 3 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 5 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts returned made 16
Totle of Shifts returned made 15

[Page 136]

1837
Mrs. Gumbleton received to keep

Feby. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 7 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 13 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 22 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 24 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 31 – 3 Shifts do.

Totle of Shirts to keep 5
Totle of Shifts to keep 4

[Page 137]

1836
Shirt & Shifts returned by Mrs. New

Dec. 23 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 30 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jany. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 23 – 2 Shifts do.
Jany. 26 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 1 – 1 Shirt do.\
Feby. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 6 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 13 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 18 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 21 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 24 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 2 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 14 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 25 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 1 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 4 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 4 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts 11
Totle of Shifts 18

Mrs. New received to keep

Feby. 9 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 24 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 28 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 13 – 1 Shirt do.
Aprl. 1 – 2 Shirts do.

Totle of Shirts to keep 5
Totle of Shifts to keep 3

[Page 138]

1836
Shirts and Shifts returned by Mrs. Smith

Decr. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 24 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 31 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jan. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 14 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 18 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 23 – 1 Shifts do.
Jan. 26 – 2 Shifts do.
Jan. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 7 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 13 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 16 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 17 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 24 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 28 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 2 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 14 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 25 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 31 – 1 Shirt do.
Aprl. 1 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 4 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 6 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts returned made 15
Totle of Shifts returned made 17

[Page 139]

1837
Mrs. Smith received to keep

Feby. 4 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 16 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 13 – 2 Shirt do.
Mar. 16 – 2 Shirt do.
Mar. 31 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 1 – 1 Shirt do.
Aprl. 3 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 4 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts to keep 6
Total of Shifts to keep 5

[Page 140]

1836
Shirts and Shifts returned by Mrs. Thomas

Dec. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Dec. 30 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jany. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 14 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 17 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 13 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 21 – 2 Shifts do.
Jany. 25 – 2 Shifts do.
Jany. 27 – 1 Shirt do.
Jany. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 3 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 4 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 7 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 13 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 17 – 2 Shirt do.
Feby. 20 – 2 Shifts. do.
Feby. 21 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 25 – 2 Shift do.
Mar. 19 – 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 19 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 23 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 29 – 1 Shirt do.
Aprl. 5 – 3 Shifts do.

Totle of Shirts returned made 16
Totle of Shifts returned made 21

[Page 141]

1837
Mrs. Thomas received to keep

Feby. 10 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 17 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 28 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 16 – 4 Shirts do.
Aprl. 1 – 3 shifts do.
Aprl. 1 – 1 Shirt do.

Totle of Shirts to keep 6
Totle of Shifts to keep 5

[Page 142]

1837
Mrs. Vincen [Vincent] returned

Mar. 15 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 19 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 23 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 29 – 1 Shirt do.
Aprl. 4 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 5 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 6 – 1 Shift do.

Totel of Shirts returned made 26
Totel of Shifts returned made 23

1836
Mrs. Vincen received to keep

Decr. 23 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Feby. 8 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 10 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 1 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar.9 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 16 – 7 shirts do.
Aprl. 1 – 3 Shirts do.
Aprl. 4 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts to keep 13
Totle of Shifts to keep 4

[Page 143]

1836
Shirts and Shifts returned by Mrs. Vincen

Nov. 26 – 1 Shirt returned
Decr. 23 – 3 Shirts do.
Decr. 27 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 30 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jan. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 17 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 18 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 20 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 24 – 2 Shifts do.
Jan. 31 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 2 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 3 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 4 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 6 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 8 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 10 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby 13 – 1 Shift do.
Feby 15 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 18 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 21 – 1 Shirt, 1 Shift
Feby. 27 – 3 Shifts do.
Feby. 28 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 3 – 2 Shirts do.
Mar. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 9 – 2 Shifts do.

[Page 144]

1836
Shirts & Shifts returnd. by Mrs. Weeks

Decr. 22 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 23 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 24 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 27 – 1 Shirt do.
Decr. 29 – 1 Shirt do.

1837
Jan. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 29 – 1 Shirt do.
Jan. 24 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 2 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 11 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 12 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 14 – 1 Shirt do.
Feby. 16 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 20 – 2 Shifts do.
Feby. 25 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 2 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 4 – 1 Shirt do.
Mar. 14 - 2 Shifts do.
Mar. 25 – 1 Shift do.
Aprl. 1 – 1 Shift do.

Totle of Shirts returnd. made 14
Totle of Shifts returnd. made 13

1837
Mrs. K. Weeks received to keep

Feby. 4 – 2 Shirts do.
Feby. 6 – 1 Shift do.
Feby. 15 – 1 Shift do.
Mar. 28 – 3 Shirts do.
Mar. 9 – 2 Shifts do.
Aprl. 1 – 1 Shirt do.

Shirts 6
Shifts to keep 4

[Page 145]

Memorandum of Agreement between the undersigned Emigrants (pr. Ship Brothers) and Messrs. James William and Edward Macarthur, 11th April 1837.

I agree for myself, and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned parties and which is as follows.

Viz.

That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our service fifteen pounds pr. annum, a cottage rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, 7 lbs of meat and 11 lbs of flour pr. week, also, the privilege of keeping a cow, with Pigs, and poultry on condition of their getting into no mischief, and being solely for your own use, and after five years should you continue that time in our service, we will establish each of you as a Tenant on fertile Land, taking the rent either in Labour or in produce. And during the first six months in our service to give your Wife one half of the above allowance of provisions.

The service to commence from the 11th of April 1837 which is the day on which you left the ship.

Camden, 14th April 1837

J.W. Macarthur

And we the undersigned on our parts severally agree to the above mentioned conditions and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages to serve our employers the above mentioned Edward James and William Macarthur in the capacity of Farm Servants, or in such other occupation as we may be directed either by them or by their agents or overseers, faithfully and diligently to the best of

[Page 146]

of our ability for the space of three years from 11th day of April 1837.

Witness our hands at Camden this 14th day of April 1837.

George Bradley
Richard Weeks, His X mark
Benjman Weeks, His X mark
Samuel Wright Burden
George Vincent, His X mark
John Weeks, His X mark
Elias Thorn, His X mark
James New, His X mark
Wm. Elliott, His X mark
Stephen Butt, His X mark
Thomas Smith, His X mark
George Butt, His X mark
Henry Gumbleton, His X mark
Thos. Cox, His X mark
Henry Thorn, His X mark

Witnessed

Edward Kirk Horn
Joseph Goodcote

Memo –
Any of the above signed individuals may consider themselves at liberty to leave our employment at any time upon condition of paying £15 if within the first year, £10 if after the completion of the first and between the first and second and £5 if after the completion of the two first years and between the completion of the second and third.

Wm. Macarthur
Camden, 14th April 1837

[Page 147]

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Macarthur in England with the undersigned Samuel Arnold and which is as follows,

Viz.

That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our service Fifteen shillings per week, a cottage rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, 7 lbs of meat and eleven pounds of flour per week, also, the Privilege of keeping a cow, with Pigs, and poultry on condition of their getting into no mischief, and being solely for your own use, and after five years should you continue that time in our service, we will establish you as a Tenant on fertile Land, taking the rent either in labour or in produce. And during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above allowance of provisions.

The service to commence the eleventh day of April 1837.

Wm. Macarthur

And I agree on my part to the above mentioned conditions, and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages to serve my employers the above mentioned, Edward, James, ad William Macarthur in the capacity of a Wheelwright or in such other occupation as I may be directed either by them or by their agents or overseers, faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years from the eleventh day of April 1837.

Witness my hand, Samuel Arnold.

[Page 148]

Memo –
The aforesaid Samuel Arnold may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at any time upon condition of paying £15 if before the completion of the first year and £10 if between the second and third, and £10 £5 if after the completion of the second and before the expiration of the third.

Wm. Macarthur.

[Page 149]

Issued to Samuel Arnold
The following goods (see Mr. Burdekins bill of this date)

1 set of bench planes, 2 bead planes
1 drawing knife, 1 spoksheave [spokeshave]
1 Hand saw, 12 socket chissels
5 Augars, 1 doz cast steel gimblets
1 Strong adze, 1 Broad Axe
1 pr. Compasses, 2 Chalklines
1 Cabinet Rasp, 1 Cabinet file
1 Charley [Charnley] Forest Stone
2 Augars

1839 April 10

Issued to Morland
The following goods (see Mr. Burdekins bill of this date)

4 quires of glass paper
2 Socket gouges, 2 Screw Augars
6 Socket Chissels, 1 Adze
6 Shell Augars, 6 Gimblets
56 Lennon Files, 24 Bradawls

Issued to Rutter
The following goods (see Mr. Burdekins bill of this date)

6 yds Kersey, 6 yds best Serge
1 Roll quilt webb, Skirts & Flaps
1 lb Nankin Thread, 1 oz silk
9 doz buckles, 1½, 1Ό and 1 In.
11 papers Sadlers tacks, Hf. a seal skin
½ lb Bees Wax, 3 Sets nails
2 best Collar needles, 9 awls
2 papers Needles

[Page 150]

Memorandum of William Loader’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned William Loader and which is as follows.

Viz –

That we will give you during good behaviour seventeen pounds fourteen Shillings Sterling pr. Annum, a Cottage or hut rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour pr. week also the privilege of keeping a Cow with pigs and poultry upon condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use, and after five years (should you continue that time in our service) we will establish you as a tenant on fertile ground, taking the rent either in labour or produce, and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above named provisions.

The service to commence from the 5th day of October, 1938.

Camden 17th day of October 1838.

Signed – Wm. Macarthur.

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the above mentioned conditions and in consideration

[Page 151]

consideration of the before mentioned advantages to serve my employers the before named Edward James, and William Macarthur in the capacity of farm servant or in such other occupation as I may be directed either by them, or by their agent or overseers faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years commencing from – day of – 1838.

Witness my hand William Loader X

Witnessed – Joseph Goodweeke
James McDonald

The above named William Loader may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at anytime (after having given due warning) upon condition of paying – if within the first year, or -- if after the completion of the first and during the second or -- if after the completion of the two first and during the third.

Camden
-- day of – 1838
Wm. Macarthur

[Page 152]

Memorandum of William Talbot’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned William Talbot and which is as follows.

Viz –

That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our service Seventeen pounds fourteen Shillings Sterling pr. Annum, a Cottage or hut rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour pr. week also the privilege of keeping a Cow with pigs, and poultry, upon condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use, and after five years should you continue that time in our service, we will establish you as a tenant on fertile land taking the rent either in labour or produce, and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above named allowance of provisions. The service to commence from the 5th day of October, 1938.

Camden 17th day of October 1838.

Signed – Wm. Macarthur.

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the above mentioned conditions and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages to

[Page 153]

to serve my employers the before mentioned Edward, James, and William Macarthur in the capacity of farm servant or in such other occupation as I may be directed by them or by their agents or overseers faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years commencing from the – day of – 1838.

Witness my hand
William Talbot

Witnessed – Joseph Goodweeke
James McDonald

The above named William Talbot may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at any time (after having given due warning) upon condition of paying – if within the first year, or – if after the completion of the first and during the second, or – if after the completion of the two first and during the third.

Camden
-- day of – 1838
Wm. Macarthur

[Page 154]

Memorandum of Thomas Bugden’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned Thomas Bugden and which is as follows.

Viz –

That we will give you during good behaviour Nineteen pounds seven Shillings and eight pence Sterling pr. Annum, a Cottage or hut rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour per week, also the privilege of keeping a Cow with pigs, & poultry, upon condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use, and after five years (should you continue that time in our service) we will establish you as a tenant on fertile land taking the rent either in labour or produce, and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above named allowance of provisions. The service to commence from the 5th day of October, 1938.

Camden 17th day of October 1838.

Signed – Wm. Macarthur.

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the above mentioned conditions and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages to serve my employers the above mentioned Edward, James, and William Macarthur in the capacity of Farm

[Page 155]

farm servant or in such other occupation as may be directed either by them, or their agents, or overseers, faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years, commencing from the – day of – 1838.

Witness my hand, Thos. Bugden

Witnessed – Joseph Goodweeke
James McDonald

The above named Thomas Bugden may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at any time (after having given due warning) upon condition of paying – if within the first year, or – if after the completion of the first and during the second or – if after the completion of the two first years and during the third year.

Camden
-- day of – 1838
Wm. Macarthur

[Page 156]

Memorandum of Stephen Kellaway’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned Stephen Kellaway and which is as follows.

Viz –

That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our service Seventeen pounds one Shilling and three pence Sterling pr. Annum. A Cottage or hut rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour per week, also the privilege of keeping a Cow with pigs, and poultry upon condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use and after five years, should you continue that time in our service, we will establish you as a tenant on fertile land taking the rent either in labour or produce, and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above named allowance of provisions. The service to commence from the 5th day of October, 1938.

Camden 17th day of October 1838.

Signed – Wm. Macarthur.

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the above mentioned conditions, and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages to serve my employers the above mentioned Edward James, and William Macarthur in the capacity of farm Servant

[Page 157]

Servant or in such other occupation as I may be directed either by them or by their agents or overseers faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years commencing from the – day of – 1838.

Witness my hand Stephen Kellaway X

Witnessed – Joseph Goodweeke
James McDonald

The above named Stephen Kellaway may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at any time (after having given due warning) upon condition of paying – if within the first year, or – if after the completion of the first and during the second or – if after the completion of the two first and during the third.

Camden
-- day of – 1838
Wm. Macarthur

[Page 158]

Memorandum of Henry Penny’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned Henry Penny and which is as follows.

Viz –

That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our Service Seventeen pounds fourteen shillings pr. year Sterling.

A cottage or hut rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour per week, also the privilege of keeping a Cow with pigs and poultry on condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use and after five years (should you continue that time in our service) we will establish you as a tenant on fertile land taking the rent either in labour or in produce and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above mentioned allowance of provisions.

The service to commence from the 5th day of October 1838.

Camden
17th day of October
Signed Wm. Macarthur

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the above mentioned conditions, and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages, to serve my Employers the above mentioned Edward, James and William Macarthur as a farm Service or in

[Page 159]

such other occupation as I may be directed either by them or their agents or overseers faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years commencing from the – day of – 1838.

Witness my hand Henry Penny X

Witnessed – Joseph Goodweeke
James McDonald

The above named Henry Penny may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at any time (after having given due warning) upon condition of paying – if within the first year or – if after the completion of the first and during the second year or – if after the completion of the two first years and before the expiration of the third year.

Camden
-- day of – 1838.
Wm. Macarthur

[Page 160]

Memorandum of James Rideout’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned James Rideout and which is as follows.

Viz –

That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our service Fifteen pounds Sterling per annum.

A Cottage rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour per week, also the privilege of keeping a cow with pigs and poultry upon condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use and after five years (should you continue that time in our service) we will establish you as a tenant on fertile land taking the rent either in labour or in produce, and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the above named allowance of provisions.

The service to commence from the fith [fifth] day of October 1838.

Camden
17th day of October 1838
Signed – Wm. Macarthur

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the above mentioned conditions, and in consideration of the above mentioned advantages to serve my employers the above mentioned Edward, James,

[Page 161]

and William Macarthur in the capacity of farm Servant or in such other occupation as I may be directed either by them or by their agents, or overseers, faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years commencing from the fith [fifth] day of October 1838.

Witness my hand, James Rideout

Witnessed – Joseph Goodweeks
James McDonald

The above named James Rideout may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at any time (after having given due warning) upon condition of paying – if within the first year, or – if after the completion of the first year and during the second year, or –if after the completion of the two first years and before the expiration of the third year.

Camden
-- day of – 1838.
Wm. Macarthur

[Page 162]

Any or Either of the undermentioned Emigrants

William Loader
William Talbot
Thomas Bugden
Stephen Kelloway
Henry Penny
James Rideout

may consider themselves or himself at liberty to leave our employment at the expiration of the first or second year of their servitude (after giving due and legal warning of the same) upon the following conditions

Viz –
Upon paying the sum of

£4-12-0 For William Loader
of £4-12-0 For William Talbot
of £1-4-10 For Thomas Bugden
of £5-17-6 For Stephen Kelloway
of £4-12-0 For Henry Penny
or of £11-15-4 For James Rideout

if at the expiration of the first year, or upon paying the sum of

£2-6-0 For William Loader
of £2-6-0 For William Talbot
of £0-12-5 For Thomas Bugden
of £2-18-9 For Stephen Kelloway
of £2-6-0 For Henry Penny
or of £5-17-8 For James Rideout

if at the expiration of the second year.

Witness my hand Wm. Macarthur

[Page 163]

[See image for various sums of money not transcribed.]

[Page 164]

Debt £13-4-7

Memorandum of Charles Reid’s Agreement

I agree for myself and my brother James Macarthur to fulfil the agreement made by Major Edward Macarthur in England with the undersigned Charles Reid and which is as follows – viz – That we will give you during good behaviour for three years that you may be in our service Fifteen pounds Eleven shillings 10d. per annum, a cottage or hut rent free, a plot of ground for a garden, seven pounds of meat and eleven pounds of flour per week, also the privilege of keeping a Cow with pigs and poultry upon condition of their getting into no mischief and being solely for your own use. And after five years should you continue that time in our service we will establish you as a tenant on fertile land taking the rent either in labour or produce and during the first six months in our service to give your wife one half of the abovementioned allowance of provisions. The service to commence from the – day of --

Signed
Camden
day of

And I the undersigned on my part agree to the abovementioned conditions and in consideration of the abovementioned advantages to serve my employers the above named Edward James and William Macarthur in the capacity of a farm servant or in such other occupation as I may be directed either

[Page 165]

either by them or by their agents or overseers faithfully and diligently to the best of my ability for the space of three years commencing from the – day of – 18

Witness my hand

Witnessed

The above signed Charles Reid may consider himself at liberty to leave our employment at the expiration of the first year of his servitude (after giving legal warning of the same) upon condition of paying six pounds twelve shillings and six pence sterling or at the expiration of the second year of his servitude upon condition of paying three pounds six shilling and three pence.

Witness my hand

Witnessed

[Page 166]

Schiveta [?] near Oschatz, 20th of May 1837

My dear Sir

I had the pleasure of addressing you the 1st of February and should not trouble you with another letter just now had I not to inform you that a number of people from the neighbourhood of Worms (not far from Darmstadt) who have read the pamphlet on emigration to Australia, which I had published, are desirous to emigrate to Australia and demand of my agent to give them the conditions of their conveyance namely, 1) if there be an advance made to defray their travelling expenses, 2) in what way they will have to pay this advance off and 3) if the voyage will take place in the course of this year and from what port. The applicants are mechanics, vine dressers and cultivators of tobacco; by all accounts an industrious quiet set of men. Now I know that

[Page 167]

it does not lay in your plan to encourage an immediate immigration in Australia from Germany, at least not unless you know something of the result of your first expedition, yet I must give an answer to these people and request you therefore to direct me what I may say to them. As all the great landowners of Australia must desire to see the country peopled by an industrious tribe, perhaps some of your friends might be indured to avail themselves of the offer of those people if you don’t choose to do it yourself. It would be observed however that they are obliged to give notice of 2 months to quit their native country. Rotterdam would be the most convenient port to embark them. Should you or your friends be inclined to enter into an agreement with those people, I will add here the address of the man who has written on the subject

[Page 168]

to my agent Mr. Darth in Leipzig.

His letter is dated from Nordheim (Circle Bensheim) in the grand dukedom of Hesse, and signed Franz Joseph Marsch. I believe it is situated near Worms on the Rhine.

Hoping to hear soon from you, and that yourself and your brother are quite well. I remain with sincere regards,

My dear Sir
Yours most truly
H. Schmitze [?]

What prospects have you for the prices of wool?

[Page 169]

To
Major Macarthur
Junior United Service Club
118 Charles Street
St. James
London

[Page 170]

Schiveta near Oschatz, July the 14th 1827

My dear Sir

I learned with concern from your favour of the 11th of June the accident you have met with on ninth of April; I hope you have quite recovered from it.

Your letter informs me that either yourself or your brother will visit Germany in the course of this summer, & that you will put yourself in communication with my correspondent at Worms (Marsch of Nordheim near [indecipherable]), allow me to observe that this is one of the men who intends to emigrate and who I suppose knows nothing of my name but is only in possession of that of my bookseller’s, Mr. Barth of Leipzig, whom I solicited to distribute the pamphlet. The British Consul Mr. Koch of frankford [Frankfurt ?] will no doubt assist you to find out the place where Marsch & his friends live.

Yesterday I received another letter or rather a sort of petition addressed to the English Ambassador (not stating where) by the hand of Mr. Barth signed by 7 men, fathers of families with 7 wives & 28 children, 18 girls and 13 boys or young men, half of them from 17 to 24, the rest 6 months to 13 years; they wish to have some more pamphlets with which they shall be supplied

[Page 171]

without delay as well as the printing Offices at Darmstadt upon their request. In this petition to His Excellency the Ambassador, the petitioners set forth that they are fully aware that they must swear obedience to the Monarch who reigns over the Country to which they are to emigrate & that they must be usefull to that state which protects them; further – that farming business is their favorite employment, & which they have been used to, but that they are also ready to turn their hands to other employment; they want but land & will soon find out how they must manage it accordingly & they may find climate & soil.

This Petition is dated Biblis, Circle of Sinsheim, Grand dukedom of Hesse, 24th of June 1827, and has the postmark of “Worms" & signed George Noff with wife and 5 children from 15½ to 24 years old;

Joseph Enghoff & wife and 5 children from 2 to 21 years,
Moolans Helfrich, wife & 5 children from 3 to 14,
Walhin Wetzet, wife and 2 children from 6 months to 2½ years
Valtin Gener, wife and 2 children from 12 to 16 yrs,
Gottfried Hille, wife and 3 children from 1Ό to 6 years,
Conrad Manzer, wife and 6 children from 4 to 28 years.

As they wish to have soon an anser so I shall inform them by Mr. Barth that somebody will soon let them know more about it.

[Page 172]

Perhaps it might be as well I send you the Petitions in question to frankford.

When I receive the Book which your brother is going to publish, I shall not fail to publish extract such parts of it, as may be interesting to Germans.

You’ll no doubt have learnt by the pubic prints and otherwise that the German wool markets of this season show a decline of from 20 to 35 percent. The fine qualities felt the depression less than the coarser; in some instances, the sustained only a reduction of 15 pr. [indecipherable]. Of the inferior sorts, there is about 1/5 unsold & will be taken off gradually before the winter sets in; if an attempt had been made to force them on the market no doubt they would have only been taken off at a still [indecipherable] reduction on last year’s price. I got for my wool three shillings a pound all round including even the [indecipherable] of Standon of Stow, who bought at Dresden 23 pounds at about the same price; if I had sent it for my [indecipherable] to England, I must have sold it at about 3/9d to clear 3/- here. My flock is now in a very prime state. I sold 50 Ewes lately to an agent of the Swedish government & several rams at different prices. Several lots were bought for van Diemans land. You were kind enough to give me hopes to obtain from N.S. Wales a Rh: I don’t & most the reason just now, but it is a quadrupede with a bill or beak like a bird (preserved in spirits, pray is there any chance of having such curiosity. If it should

[Page 173]

be had, please forward it to Reuscher & Co. in Hansbro or any other thing you may get for me, I shall most willingly pay cost & expense. Hoping that yourself and your brother James are doing well in every respect, I remain most truly, my dear Sir,

Sincerely
H. Schmitze

To
Major E. Macarthur
Junior United Services Club
118 Charles Street
St James
London

I hope all parties in England will assist by their good with your young [indecipherable] to steer the state vessel safely through all the dangers of political channels. We [indecipherable] will not wisely & support the honor of all England well. Perhaps he find out the way to get rid of the radicals.

[Page 174]

Schiveta [?] near Oschatz, Augst. the 16th 1827

My dear Sir

Last night I had the pleasure of receiving your esteemed favour of the 11th and as you state therein that you mean to leave Wisbaden [Wiesbaden] within 10 days I lose no time to send you hereby copies of the pamphlet, which I chance to have by me & which I hope will come in time before your departure from Wisbaden. I shall write to my bookseller T.S. Barth in Leipzig to send immediately, 100 copies of them to Mr. Kosh of frankford [Frankfurt ] at your disposal. Before I proceed to business let me congratulate you upon the benefit you have already derived from the use of the waters and let us hope that they may remove all the bad consequences of the accident you had met with.

I have again received a letter from Biblis dated the 19th July, of the same part, requesting to know when an opportunity will be ready for them to depart for New S.W. They beg very much to have an answer to the following questions –

1. If an Emigrant to Australia would receive all necessaries for the journey & voyage from the Crown of England – upon credit.

[Page 175]

2. Who will undertake to direct their steps to obtain them and when shall must they be ready to depart, which is so much more necessary for them to know as the present time is most convenient to supply themselves with all sorts of seeds as well for the garden as for the field, which possibly might not be had in Australia; they pretend to be well acquainted with the cultivation of the vine, tobacco, rape and linseed etc.

Finally Mr. George Noff, a friend of Biblis will have a great many followers if once the ice is broken and the first arrangements made.

Please to get somebody to write to them to Biblis what your views are as they will not keep quiet till they have a resolution. Very possibly they may not be much acquainted with the management of the vine, but as the vine is cultivated all about then more or less, they will soon get in the way; no doubt you will find it expedient to engage a man of superior knowledge to superintend your vineyard, & then it is better the labourers are not so clever as they will easier go into the methods of this surveyor.

[Page 176]

You seem not to cherish the idea much to engage of them with numerous families and no doubt their removal may be attented with some difficulties, but then I should think that people with a young and large family will keep better together, and habit will rivet them to that ground where you choose to place them; they will not easily be led astray and it will be the means to people your neighbourhood with greater certainty.

I much regret that our harvest will not allow us time to propose you the meeting on the Rhine, where I should be happy to assist you but I daresay you’ll find somebody willing to promote your plans.

I am glad the Radicals in England have lost ground. I think the whigs and tories will be wise enough to [indecipherable] upon the great questions of state and a coalition of the two parties will be practicable which will emancipate ministers from the Radicals and the tories from their fanatic ultra path, such as Londonderry, Ellenborough, etc.

I shall read with pleasure the books your brother has kindly ordered to be sent to me. When you write again please to inform me how long he will stay in Europe. Always at your service believe me to be most truly,

My dear Sir
Yours sincerely
H. Schmitze

[Page 177]

On [indecipherable]

for Major Ed. Macarthur
at Hotel de quatre Saisons
Wisbaden

[indecipherable]

[Page 178]

Contract

[Contract written in German – translation on Pages 182 to 184]

[Page 179]

[Contract written in German]

[Page 180]

Contract written in German]

[Page 181]

[Contract written in German]

[Page 182]

9.10.27

Copy of the Agreement

The undersigned pledge themselves to take care of the Vineyards of Mr. Macarthur in New So. Wales during Five Years in the same measure as of their own, and to work in the Seasons when there is no employment amongst the vines upon other Parts of his Property.

2nd – They pledge themselves to conduct themselves in their Lives and Manners as good Christians and as honest and diligent Germans, and especially to prove themselves in all things orderly, diligently & soberly and not to allow themselves to be turned aside by bad Example.

3rd – They promise not to forget the Respect due to their Employer remembering that in the same degree, as they are diligent and well conducted will they be respected.

4th – They promise to bring up their Children virtuously and orderly and to send them regularly to School.

On His Side Mr. Macarthur promises to send the named Families free of Expense from the Port of London to his Estate.

2. The Head of each Family to receive for his Labor 180 Florins (or £15 Sterling) per annum.

3. Each Family to have a separate Dwelling

[Page 183]

for himself and Family with a Plot of Garden Ground adjoining; also a Cow for its use, or the milk of a Cow and the Privilege to graze a Cow upon the Lands adjoining. They shall also be permitted to keep Pigs and Poultry, when they have raised food sufficient upon the Land given them to cultivate for their own use. But they are not permitted to sell Cow, Pigs, or Poultry.

4. Each Head of a Family to receive 7 lbs of Meat, and 11 lbs of Wheat Flour weekly, and during the first six months after its arrival the Wife to be allowed one half of the above Provisions.

5. The Women and Children shall be provided with Employment upon the Estate, as soon as they are willing and capable of working, and to be paid proportionately.

6. No charge is to be made to the Parents for the Children who attend School.

7. After Five Years they shall be permitted to establish themselves as Tenants on the above Property, that they may cultivate allotments of Ground for themselves upon equitable Terms.

8. On the following Festivals they are to be exempted from Labor, and they promise to pass them decently and

[Page 184]

and piously like good Christians,

viz,

New Year’s Day. The Day of the Epiphany, 6 January, Easter Sunday and Monday. The Day of the Ascension, Whitsunday, and Monday, Corpus Christi, St. John’s Day, Peter and Paul. Ascension of Mary, All Saints Day with other Sundays being Eleven Days in the Year besides Sundays.

9. The Five Years of the Engagement on which they are bound to commence from the Day of their arrival in New south Wales, as also their Wages.

Hattenheim
9th Octo. 1837

Edward Macarthur

[Page 185]

Copy of Agreement with the Vignerons.

[Page 186]

Mem. of Agreement this day entered into between Lt. Col. Edwd. McA (acting for self and his brothers Jas. McA & Wm. McA) on the one part and – of the other part.

1st – The above named – agrees to proceed to New S.W. there for the space of seven/five years to work in the vineyards of the said Messrs. Macarthur tending them as carefully as if they were his own, and when there is not sufft. employment for him amongst the vines to work on such other parts of their property as may be required, making himself to the best of his ability generally useful.

2nd – The said – pledges himself to live honestly, faithfully, diligently and to the best of his skill and to obey the lawful commands he may receive from the Messrs McA, their supts. or overseers, during the said period.

3rd – The said – pledges himself to bring up his Children diligently & virtuously, to send them regular to school, he engages to preserve good morals in his family, and that they shall set an example of good order and sobriety and industry to those around them.

And in consideration of the above conditions and pledges being faithfully performed, the said Lt. Col. Edwd. McA for himself & brother employers.

1st – That the said – and family of – shall be sent to New South Wale, the sum of money required in payment of their passage (& outfits) being advanced by the said Lt. Col. McA to be gradually repaid out of the wages of the said --.

2nd – That during the said term of – years he shall receive at the rate of £25 per an. wages out of which shall be deducted a sum not exceeding £10 per ann. until the said advance for passage & outfit (with interest at 10 perct.) shall be repaid to the Messrs. McA after which the full sum of £25 per annum may be usual in the Colony of New South Wales.

3rd - That no charge shall be made for the children who attend school until the advance for passage to New South Wales shall be paid off after which the said – shall be in receipt of the full sum of £25 per annum. The [indecipherable] such children of his who attend school, such [indecipherable] are paid by the parents of these children on the Estate & ranging from 3d to 6d per week.

7th - That employment at the current wages of the neighbourhood shall be found for the wife of the said – and such of his children as may be capable of working and in such case that the latter shall [indecipherable] be required to attend school more than 2 days in each week.

8th – That the term of seven years above mentioned as [indecipherable] as the wages shall commence from the day of arrival in N.S. Wales

[Page 187]

shall be paid to him, reserving however to either of the Messrs. Macarthur the right to discharge the said – from their service when the said advance shall be paid off in case the said – shall in any manner fail to perform his part of this contract.

3rd – That the said – shall have for his use free of all expense a separate dwelling, a plot of garden ground, the use of a cow for milk, on permission to grase a cow of his own on the lands adjoining & to keep pigs & poultry when he shall have raised food for his maintenance from the ground allotted to him for his own use; subject however to the following conditions, viz, that he shall not permit the cow, pigs or poultry to commit any damage upon his employers or neighbour’s property, that he shall apply their produce and the produce of his gardens, solely to the maintenance support of his family, neither selling, nor permitting to be sold any portion of the same off the estate; without proper permission so to do being first obtained, that the permission to grase a cow of his own shall strictly be construed to mean one cow only, and that all calves the produce of such cow shall be killed, sold or otherwise disposed off [of] with the knowledge of his employers before they are six months old.

4th – That the said – shall receive (in addition to his wages) weekly 7 lbs of meat and 11 lbs of wheat flour and that his wife shall receive one half the above rations for the first six months after their arrival in N.S.W.

5th – That should the said – perform his contract faithfully, and should his family prove to be sober, industrious and moral in their conduct, facilities for establishing himself as a tenant to cultivate solely for his own use was to be afforded him upon such equitable terms as

[Page 188]

Beckhaus

30 Crowns – 81
2 5 franc pieces – 4-40
2 10 florin pieces a 9f. 54 [indecipherable] – 10-48
20 Prussian Dollars – 95-

240-28
1-36
142-4

I have received from Beckhaus Twelve Pounds to be repaid at Sydney.
E.M., Wiesbaden, 15th Octr.

[Page 189]

[The following page crossed through.]

2 Children of
3 years and 1½ years of age – Separate Bunk for children.
J.B. Bakhead, His Wife, 1 Child, 4 years old – Cabin with Bath & sleeping place apart for the child.
Not yet filled.
The Scale of Provisions in zone painted calm will require no alteration.

[Page 190]

[indecipherable] of Mr. Macarthur as follows [indecipherable]
Johanson Yung

[Page 191]

[The following page crossed through.]

At Biebrich on Embarkation 12 florins or 20/- added to 11/8 on the other scale makes £1-11-8.

[Page 192]

[This page written in German.]

[Page 193]

[The first paragraph written in German.]

Caspar Flick f.50 - £4.3.4
George Gerhard f.50 – 4.3.4
Joh. Justus f.30 – 2.10.0
Joh. Stein f.30 – 2.10.0
Friedk. Ligould f. [indecipherable] - 2.10.0
Joh. Wenz f.50 – 4.3.4
in Suma f.240 - £20

[The next paragraph written in German.]

Wiesbaden Inn 23th October 1837

[Various signatures in German]

[Page 194]

Reapers & Mowers

Ric Barrett
Mulligan
Cato
Josh. Livesley
Linz May
Elias Thorn
Henry Gumbleton
John Sticks
Wright

Reapers

James Byrnes
Thos. Grask
Josh Hayes
Thos. Mackral
Micl. Ricket
Barny Ryan
John Carroll
Owen Kennedy
Patrick Sullivan
Patrick Mullineux
Thos. Senar
George Butt
Steven Butt
Henry Norris
Smith
Barn. Hicks
Wm. Elliot
John Cross

For other Work

Squire Ambler
Wm. Archer
Wm. Colgan
Ricd. Franklin
Wm. George
Rob Hughes
Frank Horton
Henry Howell
Thos. Jones
Phillip Kennedy
Patrick Mulray
Charles Penfold
John Robertson
George Steward
Joshua Smith
John Williams
Jas. Crummuck

Up the Country with Bullock Teams

John Ashworth
George Cuckcoo
James Alford
Rob May
Edwd. Wade
Robt. Vargason

[Page 195]

Schiveta near Oschatz, 13th Febr. 1838

My dear Sir

The account which your letter of the 29/30th Decbr. contains respecting the management of the emigration of 6 families from the Rheingau, is very interesting. You have arranged everything with so much humanity, kindness that it cannot fail to secure you their affection and gratitude. I never heard of so much attention being paid by anyone to the wants or comforts of those poor people who are obliged to seek sustainance abroad for selves and families. What a pity it is that your Government find it not expedient to encourage emigration from Germany to Australia and make you Commissioner General for the superintendence of the arrangements necessary to execute the plan. Some account of the transactions with your name was mentioned in some of the German papers in a manner that does you justice. Altho’ the British government may not be inclined to grant Domicile to foreign emigrants, yet it does not oppose imigrations into Australia. That being the case, (as I presume,) it seems surprising that the company who received a grant some few years ago of upwards of a Million of acres of land have not thought it proper to allot a considerable part of the land for a Germans only, allowing them each a certain quantity

[Page 196]

of land for the first 7 or 10 years free from ground rent & subsequently charging a ground rent which might be increased every 21 years with liberty to the farmer to redeem at a fixed rate. After some years the land adjacent would sell at a good price. The Germans are in general an industrious [indecipherable], quiet people & have proven to be everywhere good colonists.

I am almost ashamed to accept the box of Bird skins from Australia, which you kindly place at my disposal yet as it is so interesting to me to possess them I cannot refrain accepting them with many thanks hoping that you will give me an opportunity to be of some service to you or your brothers. If you would allow me to pay you any expense you have incurred it would certainly make me more comfortable.

However I venture to ask you another favour, now that your good brother is soon returning to Sidney. It is to request him to procure for me a small collection of dried herbs and plants & perhaps a few seeds all of the best quality, if they be had for about 10 or £15; it is my intention to present them to our Cabinet of Natural History as to the herbs, and to try the seeds myself in my own conservatory. I am not so

[Page 197]

particularly as to the quantity but value more than quality of the specimens. In order to give you as little trouble as possible it may be perhaps more convenient to you to deliver the Box intended for me to a house in London for shipment, than that you ship it yourself. If so, please send it to Mr. I.A. Droop, 9 Love Lane City, with a line desiring him to forward it by stream boat to Messrs. Renscher & Co. of Hamburg. I think I have already informed you of my intention to visit England again this year, I am not quite sure if I can undertake to execute this plan, having bought a lot of ground at Dresden, where I mean to build a neat house and lay out a garden; it is situated on the way to the great gardens commanding a beautifull view. In a few weeks I shall be able to ascertain whether or not my presence will be necessary; I hope to make such arrangements that will enable me to pass a few months in old England this year.

What news have you of your farming families of Dorsetshire, which left England upwards of a year ago?

Do you wish me to give an account of your arrangements for the 6 families of this Rhinegau in the public prints, and can you add any fresh particulars?

Mrs. Schmitz returns your kind remembrances. Please give my kind regards to your Brother and believe me most truly,

My dear Sir,
Yours sincerely
H.S. Schmitz

[In margin]

I hope you’ll excuse this servant, but my eyes are very weak so should write it plainer.

[Page 198]

to Major E. Macarthur
Cockspur Street
London

[Page 199]

Kingussie, North Britain
May 10th, 1838

My Dear Sir

The tide of emigration to New South Wales has set in to this Country with a force and rapidity which I think will be of the greatest advantage to the population who remain, as well as to those who leave in, and to the Colony to which they are destined. I may possibly judge more favourably of my own Countrymen than they deserve but such is my opinion of them, that I will be much disappointed and mortified if they are not found to be the best exception of emigrants that ever landed on the shores of Australia.

They are general persons not brought up with idle or effensive notions, and perhaps of a more steady & sober exception of people than those of the same class in any Country.

There are amongst them many who have been in habit of attending to sheep and cattle, and tho such cannot properly be called shepherds, they will very soon be brought to answer that purpose. They have all been in the habit of working in the farming way, either for themselves or for others, so that as far as I can judge, they are people who will make themselves useful at whatever they may be employed about.

Dr. Boyton Bayton has got the names of about 240 men, women & children, in and near the Village, to embark in Scone [?] and could have got as may more if he had room for them, he says that in the month of September another ship will be ready for them, and I have no doubt they will be ready also. Thinking you might wish to have some Highlanders on your estates, I wrote to your Brother the Major, who requested me to send him the names of such as I could recommend, this I will do, but I consider it the best way to send them direct to you, and should you not require them on your own Property, you may serve Dr. Bowman, Mr. Mackay, Mr. McAlister, or others of your friends by informing them that such persons, recommended by me are to arrive, should they wish for them, and I will have the satisfaction of knowing that the poor fellows are well provided for, if their conduct deserve it.

None of them are aware of my recommending them but if you go or send to engage any of them you can tell them what I have done, they will then feel confidence in what you say, knowing I would not wish them harm.

[Page 200]

[At end of page]

William K. McDonald a near relation of mine and half brother to James McDonald, has determined on going to N.S. Wales, he seems resolved on being a Practical Shepherd, and willing to learn all the drudgery attending making himself eligible as an Overseer, and being only 17 years of age it is the more likely he may succeed. I have taken the liberty of giving him a note to you, but I beg you clearly to understand that it is by no means my intention or wishes to burden you with an idle person or fine Gentleman. I wish you to make him useful in whatever way he can till like James he understands things and able to direct others. I do not wish

[continued at the top of the page]

you to keep him one moment longer than his conduct desires your countenance and in the event of you being unable to give him being any sort of occupation yourself or me the favour to direct him where he should apply employment with a reputable Person who will treat him with kindness being more an object than being wages he can get. I feel much interest in the People going out and will beg of you to write to me some account of how they are received and likely to turn out. I beg my kind remembrances to the members of your own family, Dr. & Mrs. Bowman McAlister the Macleays &c. Give me your opinion of James, as to his attention & ability in the care & management of stock as well as general conduct. I am

Yours most faithfully
D. McPherson

To William Macarthur Esq.
Camden
New South Wales

[Page 201]

Alexan. McBain, Benjamin McBain, Donald McBain, Betty McBain & their Mother – All of the same family the first two are excellent farm servants, Alexander is a tolerably good Gardner. Donald has been brought up as a Gentleman’s Servant, Betty, the Sister a good house Servant, the Mother, old but useful.

Mc. McPherson and two children, Boys, Margaret McPherson – Mc is a good farm servant. Boys very young, Margaret is his Cousin, a Dairy Maid.

Wm. Fraser, [indecipherable] Fraser, Christy Fraser – Both good young men, William a sort of Carpenter, both are labourers, Christy their Sister is a clever girl, useful amongst Cattle &c.

Donald McDonald – an intelligent man and a good Shepherd.

Duncan Gow has been all his days a Shepherd, a very good man.

Evan McPherson, a smart young fellow, a Shepherd.

Evan McDonald, Wife & Children (4) – A very steady good man, a labourer and understands farming, children young.

Duncan Robertson, wife & 3 Children – A Shepherd and a steady man, children young.

John McPherson – This is a particularly hard working man, an excellent farm servant, he has had the management of a farm, and gave satisfaction.

Duncan McDonald, Wife & 3 children – a steady man, a good Black Smith well acquainted with making farming implements.

Alexander McPherson, Wife & 9 Children – An aged man, a Shoemaker, the Wife young and a very good person. Many of the Children are young but upon the whole they are a promising family and likely to do well.

Angus Cameron, Wife & six children – Angus has rented a small farm, a steady sober man, a fine family brought up on the farm, four of them are stout well grown People.

John Stewart & Wife – a good man and a steady Labourer.

Andrew Stewart & Wife – a good steady man, a Shepherd.

[Page 202]

Angus Mcdonald, Wife & Children – a steady man, a Shepherd, his family are very young.

Duncan Warren & Children – A steady man, a Shepherd, his family young.

Donald McBain, Wife & Children – A steady man and long a Shepherd.

McRobertson – A good steady man, a good Stone Mason.

Alexn. Davidson, Wife & children – a steady hard working man, a Stone Mason but not a very good one.

- Guthrey, - Guthrey & their Sister – Both fine stout young fellows and very good farm Servants. Sister a Dairy Maid.

George Cameron – Labourer, a very good young lad.

Lewis Grant, Wife & Children – a Plumber, a very promising family but young.

Donald McPherson and family – An aged man, a very good labourer, family very good & grown up, Son good labourer and Daughter a Cook, another a good Dairy Maid.

William McPherson, William McPherson – Uncle and Nephew, one a Carpenter, the other a Shoemaker, both are also Shepherds & steady.

Donald McDonald & his sister – a steady man, a good Labourer, Sister a clever, good young woman.

Evan McIntosh – a good Labourer and stout young man.

Alexan. McPherson – a smart fellow, a shepherd.

William McDonald – a Mason, a good steady fellow.

Donald Robertson – a good young lad, a Shepherd.

Donald McPherson and his Sister – a very clever young fellow, an excellent Schoolmaster, exceedingly well recommended after being examined in Edinburgh.

Duncan McPherson – A particularly clever intelligent man, has been long a Road Contractor and understand making flood dykes, and all such work, but has of late been too fond of his glass, but seems to have found out the evil effects of it and resolves to give it up, in every other respect he is a most valuable man.

[Page 203]

Certificates of Character &c. of six families per John McLellan viz,

Rideout
Bellaway
Bugden
Penny
Loader
Talbot

with Birth Certificates, etc., and Agreements respecting the above.

[Page 204]

Favisham, [Faversham ?] May 3rd 1838

We the undersigned having employed James Ridout as a Farm Labourer (who with his wife and Family is now about to embark for New South Wales), in reference to his past conduct, beg to say that during the time he has been known to us (which has been many years) he has borne a character for Honesty, Sobriety and Industry and in our opinion is likely to make a trusty and useful person in the Colony.

Harry Fenett

This man has work’d for me the last 3 years and half, Charles Lane.

James Rideout’s character is well known to the Revd. C. Austin as stated above.

[Page 205]

Robert Bolton
Wm. Adams

[Page 206]

Character of James Rideout.

[Page 207]

Donhead – May the 2nd 1838

We whose names are undersigned do certify that Thomas Bugden is of a sober, honest industrious character, and likely to make a good Colonist in New South Wales.

Revd. Richd. Blackmore, Rector
James Wills, Churchwarden
Thos. Harvey
John Candy
John H. Brothers
James Keepen
John Wells

[Page 208]

Thos. Bugden’s Certificates.

[Page 209]

We whose names are underwritten do hereby certify that Henry Penny is a sober honest and industrious labourer and we believe that he is likely to make a good Colonist in New South Wales.

Richd. Blackmore, Rector of Donhead St Mary, Wilts.
John Green
James Wills, Churchwarden
Josiah Haytee
Henry Harding
Thomas Sharp
Samuel Harris
Richd. Roberts
John Barker
Jeremiah Bishop
Thos. Drewe
John Maidment

[Page 210]

Henry Penny’s Certificates.
No. 6

[Page 211]

Donhead, May 3rd 1838

We whose names are undersigned do certify that William Talbot is of a sober honest industrious character and likely to make a good Colonist in New south Wales.

C. Brothers
Revd. Richd. Blackmore
Jas. Wills, Churchwarden
Jeremiah Gard
George Wells
James Arnold
M. Martin
Mr. George Arnold, Farmer

[Page 212]

Wm. Talbot’s Certificates
No. 8

[Page 213]

1894

William the son of Stephen Budden & Sarah his wife, Janry. 27th

The above is a true copy of the Register of the baptism of Wm. Budden taken by me.

Charles Austin
Rector, May 25th 1838

Tollard Royal, Wilts.

[Page 214]

Donhead, March first 1838

This is to certify that Thomas Bugden of this Parish, Batchelor and Elizabeth Read of this Parish, Spinster, were married in the Parish Church of Donhead in the County Wilts, the eighth day of August 1835,

by me
Richd. Blackmore
Rector

[Page 215]

Thomas Bugden

[Page 216]

September 18th 1811, was born in the parish of Donhead St Mary & was baptised upon the 22nd day of the same month & the same year, at Wardour Chapel, Thomas the son of William & Martha Bugden (formerly Hyner)

Revd. I.B. Marest

Cornelius Hyner, Sarah Hyner – Sponsors

A true copy from Wardour Register
Revd. James Laurenson

[Page 217]

July 22nd, 1814. Was born in the parish of Donhead St Mary & was baptised at Wardour Chapel upon the 24th of the same month & the same year Elizabeth the daughter of William & Rebecca Read (formerly Williams).

Revd. I.B. Marest

James Read, Elizabeth Read – Sponsors

A true copy from Wardour Register.
Revd. James Laurenson

[Page 218]

1816 June 23. William, son of Isaac & Sarah Talbot was Baptized. I certify the above to be a true copy of the Registry Book of Baptisms of the Parish of Kingston Deverill in the County of Wilts.

W.M. Gale
Curate of Kingston Deverill

[Page 219]

1838. Marriage solemnized April 10th in the Church of Donhead in the County of Wilts.

When married – April the Tenth
Name and Surname – Willm. Talbot, Alice Bugden
Age – Twenty one, Twenty
Condition – Batchelor, Spinster
Rank or Profession – Labourer, Labourer
Residence at the Time of Marriage – Donhead St Mary
Father’s Name and Surname – Willm. Long, Robt. Bugden
Rank or Profession of Father – Labourer, Labourer

Married in the Church of Donhead according to the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of England by me,

Richd. Blackmore, Rector

This Marriage was solemnized between us, William Talbot, Alice Bugden in the Presence of Joseph Alner, Thomas Green.

[Page 220]

[See image for blank Certificate of Marriage form.]

[Page 221]

October the 20th 1814 was born in the parish of Lanson near Blandford, Mary Jane the daughter of William & Patience Lucas (formerly Blandford) & was baptised upon the 18th day of December 1814 by the

Revd. I.B. Marest

James Read, Elizabeth Read – Sponsors

A true copy from the Wardour Register.
Revd. James Laurenson

The above Mary Jane Lucas is married to Henry Penny.
John West, Rector of Chettle, Dorset

[Page 222]

Henry Penny’s Certificates.

[Page 223]

This is to certify that Henry, son of Levi and Emily Penny, was baptized in the Parish Church of Donhead St Mary in the County of Wilts. Novr. 25th 1810.

Richd. Blackmore, Rector.

[Page 224]

18--. Marriage solemnized April 7th in the Church of Donhead in the County of Wilts.

When Married – April seventh
Name and Surname – Henry Penny
Age – 27
Condition - Batchelor
Rank or Profession – Labourer
Residence at the Time of Marriage – Donhead St Mary
Father’s Name and Surname – Levi Penny
Rank or Profession of Father – Labourer

Married in the Church of Donhead according to the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of England by me,

Rd. Blackmore, Rector

This Marriage was solemnized between us, The mark X of Henry Penny, The mark X of Jane Lucas in the Presence of us, Henry Singleton, The mark X of Charlotte Singleton.

[Page 225]

[See image for blank Certificate of Marriage form.]

[Page 226]

Memorandum of an agreement between Major Macarthur and Henry Penney. On entering the Services of his Brothers, Mr. James, and Mr. William Macarthur, in New South Wales, Henry Penney is to have a Cottage, with a plot of garden ground rent free: permission to depasture a Cow, upon the adjoining lands, or to receive some equivalent should this be inconvenient, to keep pigs and poultry sufficient for his own use; and to receive from £15 to £20 per annum wages, with an allowance of 7 lbs of meat, and 11 lbs of flour weekly. His wife to receive half this quantity for the first six months.

Henry Penney is at liberty to seek other employment on making good the difference between the Government Bounty, and the cost of his outfit and passage, one third of which difference is to be remitted for every year’s Service with Messrs. Macarthur.

London
1st May 1838

Edward Macarthur
Henry Penney X his mark

Witness – Rev. John West
Rector of Chettle, Dorset.

[Page 227]

Agreement
Henry Penney

[Page 228]

Memorandum of an agreement between Major Macarthur and William Loader. On entering the Services of his Brothers, Mr. James, and Mr. William Macarthur, in New South Wales, Willm. Loader is to have a Cottage, with a plot of garden ground rent free: permission to depasture a Cow, upon the adjoining lands, or to receive some equivalent should this be inconvenient, to keep pigs and poultry sufficient for his own use; and to receive from £15 to £20 per annum wages, with an allowance of 7 lbs of meat, and 11 lbs of flour weekly. His wife to receive half this quantity for the first six months.

William Loader is at liberty to seek other employment on making good the difference between the Government Bounty, and the cost of his outfit and passage, one third of which difference is to be remitted for every year’s Service with Messrs. Macarthur.

London
May 1838

Edward Macarthur
William Loader X his mark

Witness – Rev. John West
Rector of Chettle, Dorset.

[Page 229]

Agreement
Wm. Loader

[Page 230]

Memorandum of an agreement between Major Macarthur and James Rideout. On entering the Services of his Brothers, Mr. James, and Mr. William Macarthur, in New South Wales, James Rideout is to have a Cottage, with a plot of garden ground rent free: permission to depasture a Cow, upon the adjoining lands, or to receive some equivalent should this be inconvenient, to keep pigs and poultry sufficient for his own use; and to receive from £15 to £20 per annum wages, with an allowance of 7 lbs of meat, and 11 lbs of flour weekly. His wife to receive half this quantity for the first six months.

James Rideout is at liberty to seek other employment on making good the difference between the Government Bounty, and the cost of his outfit and passage, one third of which difference is to be remitted for every year’s Service.

London
1st May 1838

Edward Macarthur
James Rideout

Witness – Rev. John West
Rector of Chettle & Farnham, Dorset.

[Page 231]

Agrfeement
James Rideout
£18.0.0

[Page 232]

Memorandum of an agreement between Major Macarthur and William Talbot. On entering the Services of his Brothers, Mr. James, and Mr. William Macarthur, in New South Wales, Willm. Talbot is to have a Cottage, with a plot of garden ground rent free: permission to depasture a Cow, upon the adjoining lands, or to receive some equivalent should this be inconvenient, to keep pigs and poultry sufficient for his own use; and to receive from £15 to £20 per annum wages, with an allowance of 7 lbs of meat, and 11 lbs of flour weekly. His wife to receive half this quantity for the first six months.

William Talbot is at liberty to seek other employment on making good the difference between the Government Bounty, and the cost of his outfit and passage, one third of which difference is to be remitted for every year’s Service with Messrs. Macarthur.

London
1st May 1838

Edward Macarthur
Wm. Talbot

Witness – Rev. John West
Rector of Chettle, Dorset.

[Page 233]

Agreement
William Talbot

Mr. Talbot
£7

[Page 234]

Memorandum of an agreement between Major Macarthur and Stephen Kellaway.

On entering the service of his Brothers Mr. James, and Mr. William Macarthur, in New South Wales, Stephen Kellaway is to have a Cottage, with a plot of garden ground, rent free, permission to depasture a Cow, upon the adjoining lands, or to receive some equivalent, should this be inconvenient, to keep Pigs and Poultry, sufficient for his own use, and to receive from £15 to £20 pr annum wages, with an allowance of 7 lbs of meat, and 11 lbs of flour weekly. His wife to receive a half this quantity for the first six months.

Stephen Kellaway is at liberty to seek other employment on making good the difference between the Government Bounty and the rest [cost] of his outfit and passage, one third of which difference is to be remitted for every year’s service with Messrs. Macarthur.

London
1st May 1838

Witness – Rev. John West, Rector of Chettle, Dorset.

[Page 235]

Agreement
Stephen Kellaway

£9.0.0

[Page 236]

Agreement between George Richards, Commander of the Ship “Royal George" A1 on the one part and James Macarthur Esq on the other.

That is to say the said George Richards on the part of himself and the owners of the aforesaid vessel A No. 1 agrees to accommodate twelve Passengers in the Cabins of the said Ship, as marked out on the Plan hereunto annexed and to provide them with all the necessary provisions of the best kind, live Stock, Wine, Spirits, Ale and Beer &c. as is customary in first Rate Ships trading to the Colony of New South Wales.

2. The said George Richards agrees to take Forty Steerage Passengers with their Children of which Children the aggregate age is not to exceed that of 20 Persons of 14 years of age.

3. The said George Richards agrees to provide these Steerage Passengers and their Children with Provisions of the best quality according to the printed Scale hereunto annexed which Provisions are to be cooked by the Ship’s Cooks and issued to them daily or weekly according to the above mentioned Scale.

4. The said George Richards engages to build for the said Steerage Passengers 20 Cabins, 10 upon each side, each Cabin to be six feet square with the requisite Sleeping Berths to be 3 feet 6 inches wide if required.

5. The said George Richards further agrees to give up exclusively for the use of the Steerage Passengers the whole of the space between decks within which the said Cabins are to be built excepting always the space between the Coomings of the Hatchways where a Table is to be provided.

6. The said George Richards agrees to place the necessary

[Page 237]

Bulls Eyes, and Three Patent Scuttles on each side, or in the place of Scuttles in the side of the Vessel removeable Bulls Eyes, and also to provide what is termed a Monkey Hatch to the main Hatchway so as to insure proper Ventilation.

7. The said George Richards also agrees that four Domestic Servants shall be supplied with such sufficient Provisions as may be set apart for them from the Cuddy Table.

8. The said George Richards also engages to provide the aforesaid Passengers with Medical Advice and Medicines.

9. The said George Richards engages to receive the aforesaid Passengers on board at Gravesend and Portsmouth not later than the 10th day of October next at the latter and to proceed to Sydney, New South Wales and he engages that every possible aid shall be rendered by himself, Officers and Crew both to Cabin and Steerage Passengers so that the Voyage may be rendered as agreeable as possible.

10. The said George Richards also engages that of clear working days there shall be allowed for the embarkation of the Passengers two at Gravesend and three at Portsmouth after which Twelve Guineas per diem will be charged demurrage it being always understood however that the stay at Portsmouth is not to exceed seven days unless the Vessel should be detained there by contrary winds in which case demurrage will not be charged for the time of such detention by the Weather.

11. The said George Richards engages to allow two clear working days for the disembarkation of the Passengers at Sydney if required.

12. The said George Richards also engages if required to receive on board more than 12 Cabin Passengers provided each

[Page 238]

each such additional Passenger pays Fifty Pounds and also he agrees to receive on board any additional number of Steerage Passengers provided every such additional Steerage Passenger if an adult pays half the Passage money or £9 allowed for an Adult Emigrant, but if such additional Steerage Passenger be a Child the said Child shall be charged at one half the customary allowance for children.

13. The said George Richards engages to allow one Ton of Luggage for each Cabin Passenger and one half Ton for each Steerage Passenger.

14. And the said George Richards further agrees that no Person or Persons whatsoever whether Steerage or Cabin Passenger shall be received on board the said Ship for a Passage to New South Wales or elsewhere excepting the Persons for whose Passage the present agreement is made with the aforesad [aforesaid] James Macarthur.

15. And in consideration of the foregoing stipulations on the part of George Richards the aforesaid James Macarthur on his part agrees to pay for the passage of the aforesaid party the sum of £2000 of which two thirds being £1333.6.0 will be paid on the Vessel reaching Portsmouth equipped for the voyage to Sydney and the remaining third being £666.14.0 will be paid at Sydney five days after the ship’s arrival there.

16. Penalty. The aforesaid George Richards hereby agrees to subject himself to the Penalty of Five Hundred Pounds in the event of the nonfulfilment of his part of the above agreement.

17. And the aforesaid James Macarthur subjects himself on his part to a like Penalty of Five Hundred Pounds, in the event of the nonfulfilment of his part of the Agreement, which is comprised in the 15th Article, as above written.

(Signed) Geo. Richards
Edward Macarthur for James Macarthur

15 Cockspur St.
9th August 1838.

[Page 239]

Agreement with the Captain of the Royal George, 9th August 1838.

[Page 240]

Memorandum of Sums Payable by Mr. MacLeay for Passengers Per “Royal George", Sydney.

Henry Avery, Wife & Child, 2 years - £26.-.-
Morris Avery, single - £12.-.-
Whatman & Wife, Child 8 months - £26.-.-
Henry Bishop & Wife - £24.-.-
William Bishop - £12.-.-
John Apps & Wife - £24.-.-
Stephen, 8 years - £7.-.-
Horace, 4 years - £2.-.-
William, 16 years - £12.-.-
George, 25 years - £12.-.-
Daniel, 13 years - £7.-.-
James, 11 years - £7.-.-
£171.-.-

To pay £57
To pay £20
To pay £12
£89

paid Cousins - £68
Self - £80
Servants - £24

£343.0.0

172
89

261

125
100
36

261

[Page 241]

No. 3

Memorandum pr Sums paid by Mr. Macleay.

54

34
18
272
34
613
54
666

[Page 242]

Particulars of Major Macarthur’s interest in the “Royal George"

Passage Money for 32 Adults and 44 Children equal to 27 adults more to Sydney - £863-0-8
Outfit of Bedding & Utensils - £72-8-9
Cloaks - £52-5-3
Stores and Material for the People to make up - £180-5-11½
Books - £16-17-8
Bats & Balls - £16-6-0
Corn Sacking - £47-3-11
Necessaries and Wages advanced - £29-7-5

£1277-15-7½

[Page 243]

Insurable Interest in the Royal George.

[Page 244]

London, 25th September 1838

My dear William

Many kind Thanks for your affectionate letter despatched to me from Camden on the Day the Germans were taking possession of their Cottages.

Your confinement to the House gave me great grief and concern.

On the other side is a List of the Emigrants by the “Royal George".

She ought to sail from Portsmth on the 10th of Octo. It may be the 15th.

We are all quite well and as busy as Bees.

With Love to all the Family Circle
Ever
My dear William
Your affectionate Br.
Edw. Macarthur

Wm. Macarthur Esq.

I have written once to our dear Mother since the receipt of that most acceptable intelligence to me of the safe arrival of the Germans.

[Page 245]

Dorset

John Douch 20, Wife 19, Isaac Green 21 single – 1
Jeremiah Hayton 21, Sarah 21, G.W. Trowbridge 18 single – 2
Robert Furnell 22, Harriet 19, Abel Furnell 21 single – 3
Ambrose Langer 35, Ann 32, William Langer 18 single – 4
Sansom Norris under 25, Wife, Henry 3, Ann 7 weeks – His Brother went with the first Party - 5
George Percy, Mary – Rough Carpenter & Farm Servant - 6

16 Adults & 2 Children – 6 Families
30 Adults & 39 Children – 7 Families

There may be one man and wife from Kent in addition.

13 Cottages of proportionate size will be required. They are all provided with bedding and utensils but may require each Family an Iron Pot.

2 Brothers with their Families.

[Page 246

Kent

[In margin]

2 Brothers with their Families

1.
Henry Sheather - 40
Wife - 38
Louis – 8
Eliza 13
Julia – 5
Silas – 15
Ruben – 11
Augusta – 12
Harriett – 16
James

2.
James Sheather – 45
Wife – 38
Eliza – 13
Edgar – 9½
George – 5
Spencer – 8
William – 6
Frederick – 2
John – 20
James – 18
Thomas – 19
Edward – 14
Samuel – 10

3.
Stephen Booth – 42
Wife – 40
Stephen – 7
Daniel – 5
Charlotte – 3
Henrietta – 1 mo.
Louisa – 19
Caroline – 17
Ellen – 15
Sarah – 13
Matilda – 9
Charles – 11

4.
William Fuller – 33
Wife – 31
William – 7
Mary – 5
John – 3
George – 14
Eliza – 12
Jane – 10

5.
William Davis – 36
Wife – 33
Keziah – 8
James – 6
Emma – 3
Ellen – 1
Charlotte – 12
Mary – 10

6.
John Apps – 40
Wife – 40
Stephen – 8
Horace – 4
William – 16
George – 15
Daniel – 13
James – 11

7.
Charles Clout – 32
Wife – 37
Charles – 10
George – 8
Sarah – 4

Proposed for Mr. McLeay
Henry Avery – 25
Wife – 23
Morris – 19 Single

Whatman – 25
Wife – 26
1 Child

Henry Bishop – 22
Wife – 19

William – 24 Single
William Wenham – 30 Single

[Page 247]

[indecipherable] Mary Olive

William Macarthur Esq
Camden
New South Wales

[Page 248]

[In margin]

Also Five Families without Children from Dorsetshire

No. 1
Henry Sheather – 40
Wife – 38
Louis – 8
Julia – 5
Ellen – 3
Silas – 15
Ruben – 11
Augusta – 12
Harriet – 16
Eliza – 13
Edgar – 9½
George – 5

No. 2
James Sheather – 45
Wife – 38
Spencer – 8
William – 6
Frederick – 2
John – 20
James – 18
Thomas – 19
Edward – 14
Samuel – 10

No. 3
John Apps – 40
Wife – 40
Stephen – 8
Horace – 4
William – 16
George – 15
Daniel – 13
James – 11

Henry Booker & Wife – 22, 19

Henry Avery – 25
Wife – 23
Child – 2 yrs
Morris Avery – 19

No. 9
Whatman – 25
Wife – 26
Child – 8 months
Henry Bishop – 22
Wife – 19
William Bishop – 24
William Wenham – 30

No. 8
Henry Booker & Wife – under 25 yrs.

No. 4
Stephen Booth – 42
Wife – 40
Charles – 11
Stephen – 7
Daniel – 5
Charlotte – 3
Henrietta – 1 month
Louisa – 19
Caroline – 17
Ellen – 15
Sarah – 13
Matilda – 9

No. 5
William Fuller – 33
Wife – 31
William – 7
Mary – 5
John – 3
George – 14
Eliza – 12
Jane – 10

No. 6
William Davis – 36
Wife – 33
Keziah – 8
James – 6
Emma – 3
Ellen – 1
Charlotte – 12
Mary – 10

No. 7
Charles Clout – 32
Wife – 37
Charles – 10
George – 8
Sarah - 4

[Page 249]

Sums received from Passengers –

Mr. Burnett - £85.0.0
Dalrymple – 85.0.0
Bowman – 75.0.0
Isaacs £18 &75 – 93.0.0
Hodgson – 75.0.0
R. Stone – 68.15.0
McLeay – 345.0.0
F.W. Biffe – 85.0.0
Leslies – 137.10.0
C.McA. – 68.15.-

1118.0.0

Mr. & Mrs. McA. – 175.0.0

1293.0.0

Henry South – 9.0.0

1302.0.0

94.10
18.10
20.0
130

£1200
130

£1070

[Page 250]

62.10.0
190.0.0
20.0.0

190.0.0

R.S.

[Page 251]

Memorandum of Sums payable on Account of Passage Money by Mr. Macleay, for Agricultural Emigrants per “Royal George" to Sydney.

George Percy, wife and child - £36.-.-
Whatman & wife – 36.-.-
Child – 5.-.-
Henry Bishop & Wife – 36.-.-
Wm. Bishop – (&c.) 18.-.-
E. Bishop – (&c.) 18.-.-
John Apps & Wife – 36.-.-
William – 15.-.-
Daniel – (& 10) 13.-.- - £39
James – 10.-.-
Stephen – 10.-.-
Horace – 5.-.-

£253.-.-
39

214

84
39

£45

[Page 252]

My Lord

The Sale of Land in the Australian Colonies; the application of the Proceeds to conveying thither from the United Kingdom. the industrious Peasant or Mechanic, from the United Kingdom ; the precision and comfort with which now almost in every case, the Voyage is performed; added to the Certainty of Employment ample Wages, and abundant Subsistance which await the Emigrant and his Family, on their arrival, form together a bright Era in British Colonization.

The ready access to those distant Lands thus afforded to the humble Labourer, as well as to the Capitalist, the many thousand Families

[Page 253]

Families thereby annually raised thereby from indigence to comparative affluence; the extent and variety of important Transactions to which this Intercourse gives rise, have so widely extended the Interest felt in the Australian Colonies, that few will be found who are not in some measure concerned in their welfare.

It is on this account that we feel justified in soliciting your Lordship’s attention to the general subject of Emigration to them, and in suggesting that the period seems to have arrived when Emigration thither, should be conducted on a Scale proportionate to their present wants, and no longer restricted, as in New South Wales, to the amount of Land Revenue.

Indeed now that Instructions

[Page 254]

have been given to raise the minimum price of Land in that Colony, it seems but politic to increase the supply of Labor, without which the Land can be of no value.

The existing System of Emigration to New South Wales which was made dependent on the Sale of Land came into operation in 1832, and by reference to the annexed Returns, it will be seen that from year to year both went on progressively, augmenting until the last year, when the Land Revenue fell off.

This falling off in the Land Revenue was preceded by so great a deficiency in Labor, and increase in Wages, as to make it evident that if the Land Sales had been less productive it arose not from any deficiency of Capital, but because they had absorbed all available Labor in

[Page 255]

in the Colony. It is known that this difficulty in procuring Labor had driven Capital into other Channels, and had been productive of extreme Loss and Inconvenience to many who had invested it in the purchase of Land.

The Sums requisite for conveying on an emigration proportionate to such investments, might be charged against the Land Revenue, and obtained by means of Exchequer Bills bearing Interest, and issued according to the Demands of this particular Branch of Colonial Expenditure.

Funds so advanced ought not to be considered an improvident forestalling of the Revenues, but a prudent anticipation of means with a view to an almost immediate increase of Capital and Wealth.

Nor would these

[Page 256]

advances on account of Emigration be necessary during a very extended Period, as such an Impulse would, in a few years be thereby given to Colonial Industry, that the Influx of Labor might be left to its own course.

The great importance of the subject, and the magnitude of the Interests which it involves appear to demand the interference of the Government, in order that a Plan of Emigration which has been productive of much public Benefit, may not at a very early stage fall to the ground become wholly ineffective.

We therefore beg that your Lordship would be pleased to give an early consideration to our Representations and to name a time when you would receive a Deputation of our Body to confer with you on the subject.

We have the Honor to be

[Page 257]

Return of Emigration to the Australian Colonies

1832 – 3733 Persons
1833 – 4093
1835 – 2800
1835 – 1860
1836 – 3124
1837 - 5054

[Page 258]

Return of Land Sold in the Australian Colonies

1832 - £6513.11.6
1833 – 14133.16.4
1834 – 36814.2.1
1835 – 87097.9.1
1836 – 58079.6.9

to 30th June

[Page 259]

Estimate of the Annual Expences of Ten Steamers of 500 Tons each, Two of which to be kept in reserve.

8 Captains at £200 each - £1600
8 Head Engineers at £300 – 2400
8 First Mates at £200 – 1600
8 Second Engineers at £200 – 1600
8 Second Mates at £100 – 800
8 Clerks at £100 – 800
8 Stewards at £72 – 575
8 Cooks at £72 – 575
32 Stokers at £48 – 1536
64 Sailors at £36 – 2304
32 Servants at £30 – 960

14,752

Estimate expence of Provisions
Coats, Agencies, Wear & tear & Contingencies, Insurance at 5 pr cent, Interest on Capital at 6 pr cent, Commission on Receipts at 5 pr cent – 118,315

133,067

By an approximate calculation the Annual receipt of 10 Steamers might be – 249,040

Profit - £115,973

Let the Profit be stated at - £100,000

[Page 260]

Annual profit at 10 pr Cent

£100,000
5,000 first year
105,000

second year – 10,500
115,500
third year - 11,550
127,050
fourth year – 12,705
139,755
fifth year – 13,975
153,730
sixth year – 15,373
169,103
seventh year – 16,910
186,013
eighth year – 18,601
204,614
ninth year – 20,461
225,075
tenth year – 22,507
247,582
eleventh year – 24,758
272,340
twelfth year – 27,234
299,574
thirteenth year – 29,957
329,531
fourteenth year – 32,953
362,484

[Page 261]

Estimate of the annual expenses of four steamers of four hundred and fifty or five hundred tons each, one of which to be kept in reserve.

3 Captains - £400 each £1200
3 Head Engineers – 300 – 900
3 First Mates – 200 – 600
3 Second Engineers – 200 – 600
3 Second Mates – 100 – 300
3 Clerks – 100 – 300
3 Stewards – 72 – 216
3 Cooks – 72 – 216
12 Stokers – 48 -576
24 Sailors – 36 – 864
12 Servants – 30 – 360

6132

Provisions as per estimate No. 1 A – 5612.10.-
Coal as per estimate No. 2 A – 11200.-.-
Agencies from Chile to Panama – 3600.-.-
Wear and tear and contingencies – 6112.-.-
Post Office department – 600.-.-
Insurance on £80,000 estimated cost of four steamers at 5 per cent – 4000.-.-
Interest on £90,000 capital required at 6 per cent per annum – 5400.-.-
Commission of 7 per cent on receipts of £93,390 – 4669.10.-

£47326.-.-

[Page 262]

Estimated expense of 10 Steamers at £30,000 is £300,000.

[Page 263]

Copy

London 31st Jany 1839

My Lord

We the undersigned land owners and other Gentlemen largely connected with or interested in the agriculture and commerce of New South Wales beg leave to address your Lordship.

We need not attempt to describe to your Lordship the vast importance of everything that has recently been done to facilitate emigratition [emigration] to Australia and the great value of the increased intercourse to the labouring population, as well as to the capitalists by which many thousand poor families have been raised in a short time from indigence to comparative independence.

The dense state of our home population and the proof which experience has afforded of the vast increase of wealth created by the emigration of those whose labor has in this country produced scarcely any remunerating return has so widely extended the interest taken in the Australian Colonies that it may now be regarded as felt by persons of almost every condition in life.

We take the liberty therefore of soliciting the honor of an interview for a Deputation of our Body of calling your Lordship’s attention to certain points which would too much extend this communication to enter upon at large at present.

To
The Rt. Honble
Lord Glenelg
&c.

[Page 264]

The sale of Lands in the Australian Colonies and the application of the proceeds to the conveyance thither of industrious peasants and able mechanics whose highly productive labor not only speedily creates new wealth, but invites the importation from the Mother Country of fresh capital, to be invested in the purchase of new Lands, thus affording the means of conveying out additional Laborers, appears to be a wise principle the adoption of which must confer lasting honor on the administration which has adopted it.

But great as is the advantage of what has hitherto been effected, we consider that the time has now arrived, when in order to obtain progressive advantages from this System, a further development of its power has become necessary, and that the advantages will be greatly augmented by the plan we have the honor to propose.

Although it appears that the whole sum of £329,000 raised by the sale of Land in Australia may have been applied in three years to the transport of Emigrants, nothing like an adequate supply of agricultural Labour has as yet been afforded, and though the demand for Land has steadily and progressively advanced with the increase of the cultivating population, yet the quantity of Land sold and the Land Revenue have each fallen off in the last year, after having been in a progressive augmentation from year to year during several years previously.

This falling off in the Land Revenue was preceeded by so great a deficiency in the supply of Labour, and by such an increase in the rate of Wages, as to demonstrate, that the decrease in the Land Sales

[Page 265]

arose, not from any deficiency of capital, but from the want of an adequate supply of Labourers to enable the capitalist to occupy with advantage the newly bought Lands, for the progressive advancing prices of Land showed that nothing but the want of a sufficient supply of Labour, could have made the capitalist undesirous of purchasing it hence a large additional importation of Laborers would immediately induce a corresponding increase in the purchase of Government Lands, even at augmented prices, the proceeds from which would again be applicable for an increased importation of additional Laborers.

In proposing therefore to meet the present difficulty by obtaining the means of sending out a large additional number of Laborers by means of a Loan to be raised in this country on the security of the Government Lands hereafter to be sold in Australia ( if other available means should not offer) we shall not be supposed to be urging any improvident forestalling of Revenue, on the contrary such an advance of funds must be regarded as a highly prudent anticipation of means, with a view to a certain and almost immediate proportionate increase of wealth and capital.

Nor would it follow on the other hand that these advances on amount of Emigration must be indefinitely continued, for as the quantity of Labour supplied shall have become more proportionate to the wants of the Colony, the call for this extra assistance will be found to diminish, but so long as it shall last, it is conceived that a System tending to relieve the Mother Country from a superabundant population inadequately supplied with labor at home, at the same time conferring upon the Colony, the advantage of a labouring population, increasing in proportion to the augmentation of capital, cannot fail under proper

[Page 266]

regulation to produce the most beneficial results to the British population and interest in each hemisphere.

The magnitude of the Interests involved in this great question, will we trust justify our request, that your Lordship may honor us by naming an early day, most convenient to your Lordship, for receiving a Deputation from our Body on the subject in question.

We have the honor to be
My Lord
Your faithful & obedt Servts.

Signed
John A. Smith
Thinsol [Thomas] Law Hodges
Edwd. Macarthur
W.P. Davidson
Wm. Walker
John Wm. Buckle
Joseph Barrow Montifiore
R. Hart Davis
John Gore
Robert Brookes
G.W. Norman
C. Tylden Pattinson
B. Lindo
Henry Kemmis
S. Majoribanks
Fred John Rothery
John Lambert

[Page 267]

London 7th March 1839

My Lord,

In reference to the Representations made by myself and other Gentlemen, named in the margin and connected with, or interested in the welfare of New South Wales, I would beg to recapitulate the Points urged at the Interview with which your Lordship was this day pleased to honor us.

[In margin]

Thomas Law Hodges, Esq., M.P.
Richard H. Davis, Esq.
William Walker, Esq.
J.W. Buckle, Esq.
Major Macarthur

That as to as late a Period as the year 1832, a very large number of Emigrants of the class of Capitalists were induced to embark their Fortunes in New South Wales, under a belief that they should be enabled to occupy or cultivate the Grants of Land which they might receive by

The Most Noble
The Marquis of Normanby
&

[Page 268]

means of Convict Labor.

Under this System the Colony attained to great Prosperity and exercised by means of its Exports (principally of fine Wool,) as most beneficial influence upon the Commercial and Manufacturing Interests of the United Kingdom. But with its Prosperity there arose many Evils, inconsistent with the moral and religious Character of a British Community, which the Government, resolving to assuage, began in consequence to depart from the system of Convict Labor, substituting in lieu thereof spontaneous Emigration from the United Kingdom.

It then became expedient to sell the waste Lands of the Colony instead of granting them as before and to apply the Proceeds to the promotion of the newly adopted Measure.

A relative decrease in the supply of Convicts with considerable accession to

[Page 269]

to the number of Capitalists has been the result rendering available Labor in the Colony wholly inadequate to the demand for it, notwithstanding very considerable importations of free Labourers and their Families have annually taken place.

The Colonists deem that they are entitled to consideration and protection of their Interests by Government while the Colony is in a Stage of Transition between the old expiring System of Transportation and the system of free Labor not yet fully in operation.

The Funds arising from the Sale of Lands in New South Wales have it appears amounted in six years from 1832 to 1837 to more than £400,000, a sum that has proved inadequate to convey thither the requisite number of voluntary Labourers, partly because out of the entire number who arrive, as many as 70 per cent are women and children, partly because the Land Funds have not been wholly applied to the purposes of Emigration.

[Page 270]

Undoubtedly as facilities for obtaining Labourers increase the value of public Lands for sale will augment particularly as it is well known that large amounts of Capital are continually transmitted for employment to New South Wales.

It was therefore suggested that Government should obtain the sanction of Parliament to advance upon the Security of Public Lands in New South Wales during a period of ten years, and according to the Demand of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, a sum not exceeding in any one year £300,000 to be applied in aid of the Funds for the promotion of Emigration, the principal and interest thereof to be ultimately redeemed from the Proceeds of the Land Sales.

It was also recommended by Gentlemen most conversant with the affairs of the Colony that there should be a Legislative Recognition of the Principle of applying the Land Revenue

[Page 271]

Revenue solely to carrying into effect a good System of voluntary Emigration in order that Public Confidence in it may be strengthened and the Basis may not be impaired upon which it altogether rests. They felt also in common with the great body of Colonists in New South Wales this appropriation to be alike indispensable to the present Interests future Prosperity and Character of the Colony, and they regard the opinion of the Secretary of State expressed by Lord Howick and approved by the Lords of the Treasury in the light of a pledge by His late Majesty’s Government, that the Crown Lands of the Colony shall be held sacred to the promotion of Emigration.

I feel assured that your Lordship will assent to the Justice and Sound Policy of this Declaration and that Her Majesty’s Government

[In margin]

16th Feby 1831

See Report of the Committee of the Legislative Council of New South Wales on Emigration, 10th Sept. 1835.

[Page 272]

Government will sanction such Measures as may be necessary for carrying on Emigration to New South Wales upon a scale of sufficient magnitude to meet the Demands of the Colony, in which a vast and increasing Metropolitan Interest is involved.

I have the honor to be
My Lord
Your Lordship’s faithful humble Servant

[Page 273]

Sir E. Macarthur to the Rt. Hon. H. Labouchere

16 Carlton House Terrace
15th July 1839

Sir,

Let me beg to bring under your consideration the Regulations in New South Wales effecting individual Proprietors, in New South Wales who import Farm Servants into that Colony, and to express my apprehension that, unless some little abatement as respects them, takes place, in the strictness with which these Regulations appear to be carried into effect, this branch of Emigration will be altogether paralized.

I have been induced to trouble you on this subject, in consequence of a Representation made to me by Mr. Hart Davis, that his correspondent Captain Dumaresq, in New South Wales, had sustained considerable loss by the disallowance of Bounties, for a man aged 34, his wife

The Right Honble Henry Labouchere

[Page 274]

32, and a youth, a useful citizan, who fell short by a few months of the prescribed age of eighteen. as prescribed by the Regulations

The above Persons were included in a Party selected for him by me, in 1838, at the request of Mr. Hart Davis, when I went sending agricultural Servants to Sydney for myself and Brothers.

I have, therefore reason to fear that a loss of several hundred Pounds will be incurred by us me, should the authorities at Sydney rigidly have enforced its Regulations, in respect to age, without having regard to the efficiency of the Families imported. With the exception of those embarked persons to 1838 (as shown in the accompanying Lists) these people were selected under a Persuasion, that the local Government in conformity with a Recommendation of a Committee of Emigration dated

[Page 275]

August 15th 1837, the Local Government had so modified a former Regulation, that the limitation in respect of age was extended to 40 years, in cases of married men, without reference to the Age of their wives, and that half Bounties were granted to efficient men above that age who should be accompanied by Children of an age capable of supporting them in the Colony.

The Persons for whom it had considered Bounties to be due were from amongst the most industrious and respectable Farm Servants, in Kent and Dorsetshire, and let me observe that, perhaps, the Government would have conveyed to Sydney these very people, had there not been many children amongst them of an age so young, as greatly to increase the risk of Life at Sea, as well as the Difficulty of finding

[In margin]

See Mr Hodges Letter, Enclosure No.

[Page 276]

Proprietors in the Colony willing to encumber themselves with the maintenance of such large Families.

Let it also be considered that had every head of a Family been rejected whose age exceeded 30 years Emigration would have been opposed by influential Persons, in England, from a feeling that none but the very best and most able men were taken out of the Country.

I venture to think that Emigration to New south Wales has been promoted in no small degree by my personal superintendence and exertions; that I have done much to overcome the reluctance of the English Peasantry to embark upon a very distant Voyage, by taking measures for their comfort and accommodation, on shipboard, and so effectually that of 238 souls embarking in five different Vessels for Sydney there is reason to believe that not an Infant has perished on the way.

Upon these public Grounds, therefore, I hope Her Majesty’s Government may be induced to recommend that this Representation may be received and acted upon by the Local Government, in a Spirit of Equity and Consideration, proportioned to the good it may be deemed to have done rendered to the general cause of Emigration, and not to suffer me to incur a heavy loss, from the Error into which I had fallen with respect to its Regulations, and of which Error I have only recently been made aware.

I have the honor to be
Sir
Your faithful humble Servant
Edward Macarthur

[Page 277]

Pinnock

Immigration Office,
17th Decembr. 1839.

Gentlemen

I beg leave to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th Inst. requesting that I would cause the two families of Homer and Croker, whom you have imported into this Colony pr. Ship “Kinnear" to be examined, in order that you might be paid the usual amount of Bounty, on their behalf.

In consequence of Croker and his wife being both above the prescribed age of forty years; themselves and their families are, with the exception of their Daughter (Mary Anne) ineligible to receive Bountys but Mary Homer being only thirty-seven years of age, altho her Husband is considerably above forty, entitles herself and family to receive it with

[Page 278]

with this explanation. I beg to apprize you that I have recommended to His Excellency the Governor the payment to you of ninety-one pounds: being the amount of bounty due to you on such members of these families who came within the bounty regulations.

[In margin] - £91

In reference to the latter part of your letter, I beg to acquaint you that, notwithstanding the fact of Wm Abbott’s being previously in your Service in this Colony, the circumstance of Mrs Abbott and her Family arriving here unaccompanied by her Husband, incapacitates her from receiving bounty in aid of her Passage hither.

I have the honor to be,
Gentlemen,
Your most obedt. Servt.
J. Denham Pinncok

J. & W. Macarthur Esqs.
Camden.

[Page 279]

April 1840
Australia
New South Wales

“Poor Australia – robbed of thy purse, and reputation too."

There is little probability of arriving at any sound conclusion respecting the Australian colonies, as long as men continue, as in Bacon’s time, to disregard the observations of experience, and to “tumble up and down in their own reason and conceit." As respects New South Wales, however, the maxim that truth ultimately prevails, is becoming daily verified. The best answer to this class of “intellectuals," whose delight is to dwell on the dark side of things rather than generously to contemplate a colony nobly contending with, and overcoming the moral difficulties, with which it had from the first to struggle, will be found in the following extract, with which we have been favoured, from the note book of Mr. Justice Burton, one of the colonial judges, now in England.

It comprises a period of six years from 1833, when the population of this colony was 60,794, to 1838, when it was probably 100,000; the free population, who had never been convicts, being at the commencement of the term about 30,000, at its close nearly 50,000.

This summary of the cases tried by Judge Burton may afford a just criterion of the state of society, as it does of the relative proportion of persons actually tried for various offences. It exhibits, perhaps, about one third of the entire number of criminal cases in the colony, the remainder having been tried before the two other judges.

No offences of persons born in the colony have been such as to call for the sentence of death, and no charge for any licentious crime was brought against a native colonist within these periods.

Summary of Cases tried from 1833 to 1838.

Males – Females – Total

Arrived free – 42 – 15 – 57
Born in the Colony – 30 – None – 30
Convicts – 450 – 2 – 452
Originally Convict – 241 – 8 – 249
Soldiers – 25 - - - 25
Sailors – 8 - - - 8
Aborigines – 14 - - - 14
Doubtful – 17 – 1 – 18

[In margin] – Total 853

Total 852.

Description of Crime amongst the Emigrant Class

Conspiracy to defraud government, 6; defraud creditors, 15; misdemeanour, 6; various offences, 28.

Ditto Born in the Colony

Cattle stealing, 13; burglary, 4; robbery, 5; maliciously stabling, 1; conspiracy to defraud creditors, 1; assault, 1; receiving stolen goods, 3; larceny, 2.

[In left hand margin] – There are about 27,000 native Colonists. There were not 100 cases in six years of Crime, imputed to them.

This view is further corroborated by an article in the Colonial Magazine of the present month, from the same honest pen.

It asserts that the state of society and crime in New South Wales is no more truly represented in the Parliamentary inquiry and report upon transportation than an inquiry into the horrible particulars of an ill-regulated gaol in England would represent the state of society in the county in which it is situated.

“The modes of social life of persons in the better classes in New South Wales do not vary in any respect from those which prevail in England.

“The inferior order of settlers, and the agricultural labourers, having been more removed by their employment at a distance from his personal observation, the evidence which he can produce of their conduct also, is in the small number of persons who have been brought before the criminal tribunals of the colony.

“Even amongst the class of men who had been convicts, there are not wanting individuals who, walking humbly with their God, are to be found chiefly in the paths of private duty.

“The general body of persons born in the colony has in a surprising manner risen superior to all the discouraging circumstances attending their birth, education, and early associations. They have proved themselves as free from guilt of these crimes which are committed in their country, as any class of person within it. Many of them have attained to wealth, and worthily occupy a middle station in society, and are remarkable in it for their free, and bold, and manly independence; for love of their country, and for their entire freedom from those degrading habits which they see in operation around them.

“When, indeed, the catalogue of crimes committed in the colony is referred to, it will be seen how little of it lies to the charge of the free emigrant and the colonial born. The conclusion to be hence derived is obvious – namely, that the virtuous emigrant to New South Wales may find associates there as worthy of his intercourse and intimacy as in the country from which he proceeds, and is not necessarily driven to intermix with any others.

“At Sydney it may be affirmed that there is a much larger and respectable society of all classes – of the superior and the middle especially – than in any town of the same size and population in England The proportion of persons who constitute the upper circle is greater beyond comparison.

“The writer has seen both sides of the comparison, and is able to judge between them, and does not hesitate to say that for decency in the public streets by day, and for quietness at night, the town of Sydney has the advantage over almost every part of London."

[In right hand margin]

Having reference to a sum of about £800,000 paid by purchasers of Land in New South Wales, under a persuasion that it would be applied to the importation of families into the Colony from the class of labourers in the United Kingdom.

About £400,000 of this sum will with including the present year have been expended in payments for Police and Gaols in New South Wales, a charge always borne by the British Treasury until 1835. The misapplication of this sum at a time when measures were taking for the discontinuance of the Transportation System has led to a great dearth of labour in New South Wales.

[Page 280]

16 Carlton House Terrace
25th January 1842

My dear Lord,

Before your Lordship comes to Town, I venture to trouble you with the consideration of the accompanying Letter to Lord Stanley on the subject of Emigration. His Lordship has already received from me a counterpart of the Letter, and promised that when assured – that the Emigrants of 1841 have been equally fortunate, in reaching Sydney and Port Phillip, with the Emigrants of preceding years and equally successful after they arrive in obtaining employment – he will determine how Funds are to be provided to carry on Emigration to New South Wales during the present year. Yet notwithstanding these assurances a sense of duty towards that Colony prompts to relax no endeavour to confirm the Government in a course of Policy, to which it now evinces some little disposition.

Your Lordship will I feel persuaded be more than ever of opinion that the misappropriation of the Land Sales Fund of New South Wales was as much

The Lord Bishop of Exeter
&c, &c.

[Page 281]

an Injury towards the poor of this Country, as to the Inhabitants of that Colony – altho’ to the Colonists there were special circumstances, which rendered this misappropriation a double aggravation of the Injustice.

It has never been desired that it is the duty of this Country to do all in its power to repair the Injury which the presence of a Penal Settlement must of necessity have inflicted upon a new State of Society like that which must for years exist in every Settlement in Australia.

Viewing the subject under the aspect of this double obligation, namely towards the colonists – and towards the Poor of this Country, let me trust your Lordship may be of opinion that the members of the Episcopal Bench might in this Instance well and becomingly interpose – not only to your Lordship’s opinions, also to the moral obligations of this Country towards dependent Communities cannot fail to exercise a powerful influence upon the Government. The contrast in the condition of such of the Poor as have emigrated to New South Wales with the State of too many of

[Page 282]

of their class at Home is great, and establishes the Fact, that while the Emigrants by the act of their Emigration are greatly benefited, whole Parishes are relieved, and the Poor Labourer at Home, finds more work as well as some little advance of wages, occasioned by the Emigration of the surplus number of the Labouring Population.

I should be much obliged to your Lordship if you would have the goodness to turn this subject over in your mind, that early measures may be taken to obtain the concurrence of the Bishops of London, Salisbury and Chester conjointly with your Lordship in the accompanying Statement, your Lordship signing it on behalf of the Poor of this Country.

I remain with every consideration
My dear Lord
Your Lordship’s very faithful Servant.

[Page 283]

p.s.

The Revd. John West of Chettle in Dorsetshire by whose benevolent assistance I was enabled to obtain (and a large portion from his own Neighbourhood) as many as 235 Emigrants, all of whom happily reached Sydney without a single casualty or loss of life, when recently addressing me says – “The Son of one of the Emigrants writes to his Father here, that he was at work upon new Church at Camden – that he was doing well having gathered in three acres of Wheat of his own and that he had a yoke of Oxen, adding Father you know if I had remained at Home, I should not have had the Tail of an Ox.

[Page 284]

16 Carlton House Terrace
25th January 1842

My dear Lord

Before your Lordship comes to Town let me venture to request your consideration of the accompanying Letter to Lord Stanley – with a view to your giving to it conjointly with a few – and but a few influential Members of Parliament, the weight which would attach to your Lordship’s name and signature. Lord Stanley has already received from me a counterpart of the Letter – and he promises that when assured that the Emigrants of last year have been equally fortunate in reaching their destination, and in finding employment after their arrival, with the Emigrants of preceding yours, he will determine how Funds are to be provided to carry on Emigration during the present year. Notwithstanding these assurances a sense of duty

[Page 285]

duty towards the Colony prompts me to relax no endeavour to confirm the Government in a course of Policy to which it now evinces some little disposition.

Let the Government but reflect how the steady influx of as many well selected people as New South Wales could feed and employ, would in the short space of five years act upon the now paralysed manufacturing Industry of this Country. And then let it ask itself is it wise at such a juncture to hesitate about the application of even half a Million annually to such a purpose.

I receive the most gratifying accounts of the Emigrants whom I myself sent to the Colony – in number 235 and thank God without the loss of an Infant. One of them in a Letter to his Father in Dorsetshire says that he is at work building a Church – that he was doing well having gathered in three acres of wheat of his own, and that he

[Page 286]

had a yoke of Oxen adding “Father you know I should not have had the Tail of an Ox if I had remained at Home."

Believe me
My dear Lord
Your Lordship’s very faithful Servant

[Page 287]

Macarthur, Sir E.

In 1840 an order in Council was issued directing that Transportation of Convicts to New South Wales should be discontinued. Any fresh assignment, therefore, of these persons to the colonists has necessarily ceased.

In the same year (1840) Government, altho’ it had at that time appointed three Commissioners for Emigration, (a service previously conducted by a Public Officer called the Agent General) totally ceased to send Emigrants to New South Wales.

The persons who landed in New South Wales in 1839, under the management and direction of that Department amounted to 4,730; and an equal, if not a greater, number ought to have been sent to the Colony by the same Department in 1840, especially as the Transportation of convicts then ceased. If there were no longer any funds in England applicable to this branch of the public service, the Colony should at least have received assistance from the Mother Country – particularly as its labour fund had been exhausted by large drafts upon it to defray charges

[Page 288]

charges for Police and Gaols in the Colony amounting to nearly £100,000 per annum, or about one third the entire expenditure of the Colony, and which charges were partly paid out of the Immigration fund, and partly out of the ordinary revenues.

It is true that the number of Immigrants, who have arrived in New South Wales, under what is termed the System of Bounties, have increased from year to year, but so also have the class of capitalists, whose money has been received as the price of purchased lands. The number of Immigrants, therefore, of the class of labourers, altho’ absolutely greater, is relatively less – in a word the Employers of servants have become many, while the servants are proportionately few.

The Parent State having fostered for more than fifty years various interests in New South Wales, as a check or counterpoise to the evils of Transportation, it was its duty, either to ascertain before it stopped the Transportation of convicts system that

[Page 289]

that those colonial interests would not be injured by the change, or to have made some provision for such contingency.

The Government alleges that an increase in the sales of land and increasing revenues are sure tests of prosperity, and, therefore, it might be inferred that the number of labourers in the Colony is not deficient – and undoubtedly this would be a valid argument, if it could be shown that it was the produce of the soil and fisheries of the Colony which served for payment of the labourer and to provide purchase money for the purchased its waste lands. But on the contrary, it is in great part not the capital of in great part borrowed of the Mother Country, or the capital of neighbouring colonists profits of past years, or capital of newly arrived Immigrants which is to a very great extent employed for these purposes objects; and it is the knowledge of the difficulties of the Colony in the Colony of these circumstances which has called from forth the Declaration of the Governor and Council of New South Wales, that every branch of productive industry there is in danger of falling into decay on account of the extreme deficiency of labourers.

[Page 290]

London
34 Fenchurch St.
13 Oct. 1842

Coll. Macarthur
Hotel des Quartre Saisons
Wiesbaden
via Antwerp

Sir

In acknowledging receipt of your esteemed favour of the 7th & 8th Inst. we much regret that we cannot possibly conform with your wishes as to the Emigrants for the St. George that ship being quite full & leaves Gravesend on the 15th Inst. We fear this will prove very mortifying to you, but we had given up all ideas [indecipherable] requiring any room in her, not having heard from you [indecipherable].

We beg to annex a plan of the next eligible ship & I shall be glad if we can make arrangements for the passage of these people by the Stratheden. This is a first rate ship in every respect & the Cabins can be built exactly as you propose. She will sail punctually as advertised the 25th Nov. from Gravesend & from Portsmouth the 1st Decr. & will carry an Experienced Surgeon.

We shall have pleasure in making the accommodations as complete as possible & anticipating your reply are,

Sir,
Yr. mo. Obt.
Marshall & Edridge

[Page 291]

Via Antwerp

Colonel Macarthur
Hotel des Quatres [Quartre] Saisons
Wiesbaden

[Page 292]

[See image for print with the caption “Der Eisenbahnhof in Wiesbaden".]

Wiesbaden, Tuesday 18th October 1842

Dear Sirs,

You would much oblige me if you would have the goodness to ascertain what steps have been taken by Messrs. Marshall and Edridge respecting Four Cabins, in the St. George for the German Vine Dressers, engaged to go to Sydney. This is the Eleventh day since my letter to them on the subject, and I indulged an Expectation, that if I could have received their Reply, I might have departed for London, and have been in time to embark the People, in the St. George, at Gravesend. If due arrangements have been made in her for the Reception of these Families, there will probably be no difficulty in joining the St. George at Portsmouth, but unless their Cabins are prepared and properly fitted out I should not be justified in putting the People upon a chance of such Accommodation, as might be found after their Embarkation.

By the newspapers I learn that several

Messrs. Buckles & Co.
Mark Lane

[Page 293]

vessels are advertised to sail just now for Sydney, and I have therefore made up my mind to set out Tomorrow morning with the Germans. I ought to be at Rotterdam in sufficient time to reach the Thames on Saturday and if the arrival of the Germans has been anticipated and the St. George be still at Gravesend measures might be taken to communicate with the Rotterdam Steamer when she appears at that Anchorage. At all events I should be much obliged if the embarkation of the People in the St. George can be now undertaken with propriety, that Messrs. M. & E. would have a messenger in Attendance, at the Place, where Passengers land in London to inform me of the course which is to be taken.

If all idea of these Emigrants going to Sydney in the St. George is to be relinquished I should be exceedingly obliged to you if you would engage a Passage for them in the Chatham, provided you deem her an eligible ship, and that she is amongst the earliest of the vessels to depart direct for Sydney.

The Terms should, I apprehend, be such as Messrs. M. & E. deemed ample to enable them to provide Cabins, and good subsistence for the Families, who are to go to Sydney – namely Nineteen Pounds for each Person exceeding Fourteen years of Age. This was indeed One Pound a Head

[Page 294]

more than they at first named, one half the Passage Money to be paid on embarkation, the other half on the arrival of the People at Sydney. The present Party consists only of Four Men, with their Wives and Children – making Eight Persons above 14 years – with Five Children – Each Family to have a separate Cabin, with two Berths.

Be assured that a very large Emigration of Agricultural People of the most desirable class, may be established amongst the People living in the Districts bordering the Rhine, and little more is required to promote this most essential object for all who are interested in the Affairs of New So. Wales, than to gain the confidence of the Peasantry by good treatment.

[Page 295]

This Letter was never sent but it may prove interesting as a Fragment.

[Page 296]

Rotterdam, Friday October 21st 1824

My dear Brother,

The letters which I wrote to you three weeks since from London will have apprized you that I was on my way into Germany to obtain some more Vine Dressers for you. I am now on my return to London having today come from Wiesbaden with four Men, their Wives and Five Children. One of the Men is a Cooper, a very valuable Man. They have their Implements of husbandry and a case of vines, in the same manner as the first Party. Their names are as follows,

Jacob Stein, age 34
Wife - 29
1 Boy – 3
1 Boy – 1Ό
Johann Stumpf - 28
Wife – 28
One Boy – 5½
Johan Baptist Beekham – 33
Wife – 33
One Girl – 4½
Johann Jung – 29
Wife – 26
One Boy – 6 months

13 Souls

Short as the period has been in which I have been selecting them, I have every reason to be pleased with them so far. They are engaged to some five years at Fifteen Pounds per Annum, with the same advantages as the first Party

[Page 297]

have had. I was in hopes to have been in time with this Party to send them by the “St. George" but the Agents have written to inform me that she was to sail from Portsmouth Tomorrow.

There are two Vessels advertized to sail direct to Sydney the Chatham and the Everette. By one or other of these Vessels I hope to send them. I should have remained in Germany with the Party, until a Sydney Vessel was ready to receive them, but the Winter appears already to be setting in, and the Families had dispossessed themselves of their Cottages to be in readiness to set out at this time. I might in a few weeks obtain almost any number of agricultural Servants in Nassau on the terms in which these are engaged.

I have written to Mr. Corpie, in Chegum Gard, and to Messrs. Buckles to make the necessary enquiry about a ship and to the former to have some place where the Germans may be lodged until she is ready to receive them. I shall close this letter as soon as I reach London.

London, 7th November 1842

The Germans and myself had a rough Passage from Rotterdam. We did not reach London until Monday, about one o’clock. Since their landing they have lodged at a Tavern near the St. Katherine’s [Katharine] Dock where they have been very well put up for 6/6 per diem, or sixpence a head round including [indecipherable] and attendance, and I have given them 3/- each Family per Diem for subsistence. They have been quite happy – and there have been no complaints of any kind. They have all been to see me, and I have visited them

[Page 298]

daily it is impossible for People to be more orderly or better behaved. Having written to Mr. Buckle about a Ship for their conveyance to Sydney, I found on landing that he had made the necessary enquiries; and that I might have the Cabin Accommodation for them in the “Fama", Captain Bennett engaged in part to carry stores, sheep, and two Bales for the Australian Agricultural Company. I closed with the owners, and am to pay £190 for their Passage – one half here the other by a Bale on Sydney at 30 Days. The Five Children are estimated as two Adults, which gives 10 Pounds at £19 per Head. The wind has been fair since the 4th which has made me most anxious for their Departure. They are all to embark tomorrow, their Cabins all well appointed with everything that depends on and to insure their comfort on so long a voyage.

The Charge from Wiesbaden to London for each grown Person is now £2.6.4 a Head say including children £5.5 for each Family. It is therefore quite as good a plan to embark the People in London, as in Rotterdam. If there is time before the Departure of the “Fama", and as soon as I receive all the Bills for their Equipment, I will send you an exact account of the entire expense. These Germans are so orderly, and contented, that it may well answer your purpose to engage a number of them as ordinary Agricultural Servants and Shepherds. The Children of the First Party ought now to be sufficiently instructed to interpret for you. I shall do nothing in this Project until I hear from you.

The Germans have now under their care a Box with 2000 Vines, a Box of Vignerons Implements (marked I.M.D.)

[Page 299]

in the Ship’s Hold, and a smaller Box similarly marked, in the possession of Jung who has a letter from me to Williams with the Kegs.

There are besides two tin Tubes filled with Seeds, and Seed Potatoes, and a case Tea Case of Books and a Packet of Letters which two last I shall give to Captain Bennett, who appears to be a worthy and obliging Man.

I shall request him in the event of his making at a Port to expend Three Pounds on Fruit and Vegetables for the Germans which pray repay him.

I have nothing more to add than that I remain,

My dear Brother
Very affectionately yrs.
Edw. Macarthur

[Page 300]

London Novr. 7 1842

Major Macarthur

Bot. of Millers & Cotton
No. 145 [indecipherable]

The following for the Emigrants pr the Fama.

1 Coffee Mill – 4.6
1 Iron Tea Kettle – 3.6
8 Table Knives & forks – 9 – 6.0
19 Tinned Iron Spoons – 3.6
4 Hook Boilers – 1/9 – 7.0
8 Tin Soup Plates – 7 – 4.8
4 Round Dishes –1/2 - 4.8
11 Drinking Porringers – 3.5
3 Small Tin Plates – 1.6
4 Green Pails & Covers – 3/3 – 13.0
2 Large Tea Canisters 1/9, 2/3 – 4.0
3 Large Round Boxes for such Sugar & Rasing – 3/- - 9.0
2 Oval Mess Dishes – 1/6, 2/- - 3.6
1 Tin Chamber wh. Cover – 1.6
1 Washing Tub – 4.0
4 3 Gallon Bottles – 4/- - 16.0
4 Kidds 2/- - 8.0
8 Bearers for Water Bottles, nails and fixing – 4.0
2 Pudding Moulds wh. Covers and Cloth Bags, 2/6 – 5.0
2 Pieces of Strong Painted Wire Work and fixing – 10.0
1 Tin Can – 3.6
4 Staples, 4 Iron Hooks, nails and fixing – 1.0
New Ends to 2 Round Tin Cases and Soldg. up – 2.0
1 Square Tin Case and Soldering up – 4.6
Paid for Painting the Hoops of the Casks, Tub & Kiddy – 3.6
Paid Truck Hire & Man – 1.9

£6.12.0

[Page 301]

Sir E. Macarthur respecting the German emigrant Stein.

8.11.42

Received from Stein –

In half crowns – 10 – 24 Florins
Crowns a 2f.42 – 8.6
Florins – 2.0
Five franc Pieces – 2 – 4.40
Prussian Dollar – one – 1.45
2½ Ten Florin Pieces in Gold – 24.45
2 Ducats a 5.36 – 11.12

Florins – 76.28

English Money or £6.3.4
Of which sum Six Prussian Dollars or 18/- was returned to Stein at Biebrich – 18.0

£5.5.4

Which leaves £5.5.4 to be repaid Stein at Sydney.

Edw. Macarthur
Novr. 8th 1842

[Page 302]

Memo of £5.5.4 due to Stein

[Page 303]

Sir E. Macarthur

London, 8th Novr. /42

My dear William

I have given an Introduction to you to his three Companions, Stein, Beekham & Jung – and that he may not be excepted I write this note for him to take Stumpf to take. He is equally well conducted with the others. Besides his general knowledge as a Vine Dresser, he is a Tanner. He seems less intelligent than his Companions, but is most willing.

[Page 304]

He came in place of Stein’s Brother who at the last moment changed his mind, having been so persuaded by his Wife, and would not fulfil his engagement. I am much pleased with the Four Women – without exception and with their children.

I recommend them all to you.

Believe me
My dear William
Yr. affectionate Bro.
Edw. Macarthur

[Page 305]

London November Eight 1842

William Macarthur Esq.
Camden
New South Wales

By Stumpf.

[Page 306]

[Reverse side of envelope with seal.]

[Page 307]

[Page written in German.

[Page 308]

[Reverse side of previous page with words crossed through.]

[Page 309]

Lt Colnl. McArthur

London, Nov. 8 1842

Bot. of S.W. Silver & Co.
Clothiers &c.
Nos. 10, 66 & 67, Cornhill & 4½ Bishopsgate St. Within London, & St. Georges Crescent, Liverpool.

8 Wool Beds & pillows – 7/6 – 3.-.-
8 Sgle. Navy Blankets – 6/- - 2.8.-
8 Color’d Counterpanes – 2/4 – 18.8
4 Canvas Valioses & Straps – 2/10 – 11.4
16 lbs Marino Soap – 8d. – 10.8

7.8.8

192 yd. Stout Cotton – 7 – 5.12.-
28 yd. Cottn. print – 6 – 14.-
7 yd. Cottn. print – 7½ - 4.5
Needles, Cotton, &c. – 4/6 – 4/6

£14.3.7

7.8.8
6.14.11

[Page 310]

London, November 9th 1842

My dear Brothers,

The East Wind has had its blow and is done – the West Wind has set in – and the Germans have been embarked since yesterday – and the “Fama" still in the St. Katherine’s Dock. Fancy the annoyance it has been. Patience then for there is no Remedy for the Delay. I visited the Ship this morning with Davidson, substantially the People are well off and are becoming accustomed to the Vessel, but she is in sad confusion has [as] always happens on such occasions. Davidson was very much pleased with the People. With the exception of the Five Children, the others are all in the Prime of Life. They have conducted themselves throughout with the greatest Propriety, and today they all came forward to express their sense of what I had done to make them comfortable. They had been at a Public House near the Dock for Fifteen Days. There has been no sort of trouble with them, beyond that of the daily Routine. Imagine the endless appeals, had they been so many People from hence. You would

[Page 311]

do well to consider whether it may not be practicable to have a large Portion of your Servants from Germany. In a Statement which you will find in a letter which I enclosed to Captain Bennett, it appears that the Expense of a Man, Wife and Child from Nassau to Sydney via London is about Sixty Pounds. A number of contingencies arise and I do not think it can be accomplished for less.

When I had put up such Books as had been delivered to me come from Walshes’s, a number of “Gould’s Birds of Australia" was delivered to me, with a volume of Hanzard’s Debates. They were put up separately and left on board the “Fama" to Day.

With the Wind as it now is, it signifies but little whether the Ship be in Dock or in the Downs for further she could not proceed. It is

[Page 312]

very possible she may not get away until the day after Tomorrow.

I put up in this letter X two Notes of Hand from Jung. They are entered in his Account. The Germans are not to be relied on in matters which concern petty sums of money. It arises out of the extreme Poverty of their Country.

Today I have had a Gossip at the Club, with the Adjutant General, about old old Times when we were living together at No. 6 Great George Street, Westminster.

Remember me very affectionately to our dear Mother and to all the members of the Family Circle.

Believe me
Very affectionately yours
Edward Macarthur

X The said Notes are not to be found. They are however entered in Jung’s Account, and he is satisfied with it. The Notes are for 43 Florins & 7 Florins equivalent to £4 odd English Monies.

[Page 313]

London, November Nine 1842

James Macarthur Esqre.
Camden
New south Wales

By Stein.

[Page 314]

Papers respecting German Emigrants and agreements.
1843 & 1844.

London, Thirteenth November 1842

James Macarthur Esqre.
Camden
New South Wales

Favd. by Captain Bennett, Barque “Fama".

[Page 315]

Sir E. Macarthur to James Macarthur.

London, Friday 11th November 1842

My dear Brothers,

This letter is written to go in the Letter Bag of the “Fama". She is positively to leave the St. Katherine’s Dock Tomorrow Morning and I write to apprize you that she has on board a Party of German Vine Dressers consisting of Five Men, Stein, Beekham, Jung, ad Stumpf, with their Wives and Five Children.

I have given the Captain a Packet of Letters, dated in the hustle of Departure, the 13th instead of the 11th. He has in charge for you a Tin Case with Books – a volume of Hanzard’s Debates, and a number of the “Birds of Australia".

Believe me
My dear Brothers
Very affectionately yours
Edward Macarthur

[Page 316]

[Various figures in pencil not transcribed.]

James Macarthur Esqre.
Camden
New So. Wales

per “Fama"
11th Novr. 1842

[Page 317]

Sydney, 29 July 1844

Messrs. I & W. McArthur

Dr. to [indecipherable] &. Jas. Giblet

Passage per “Star of China" from New Zealand.

Sheate, wife &c. 3 Childn. - £14.14.-
Post, wife & 1 child – 10.10.-
Trebbow, single – 4.4.-

£20.8.-

Recd. Payt.
C. &. C. Giblet
John Wilson

[Page 318]

29.7.44

Memorandum –

The undersigned, Philip Post, hereby agrees to serve Messrs. Jas. & Wm. Macarthur of Camden, New South Wales in the capacity of Vine Dresser and to make himself generally useful for the term of Five Years to date from the day of his landing in Sydney in consideration of the remuneration hereunder stated. He engages to conduct himself honestly, diligently, soberly and peaceably during the period of his engagement and to obey all lawful and reasonable commands on the part of his employers or those whom they may place in authority over him. In remuneration for his services he is to receive wages at the rate of fifteen pounds (£15) per annum paid quarterly with a ration of 7 lbs. meat, and 11 lbs. Flour per week, to have a cottage to reside in rent free, with half an acre of good land for a Garden, also the privilege of grazing one Cow to supply him with milk and of keeping Pigs and Poultry but upon the express conditions that he is not to suffer any mischief to be done by the animals or Poultry and not to sell or dispose of any part of the produce either of these or of his Garden without his employers consent (the privilege being granted merely to enable him to support himself and family upon this produce) upon pain of being deprived of the indulgence.

And Messrs. Jas. & Wm. Macarthur in consideration of the foregoing terms being strictly observed by the above named Philip Post agree to give him the wages, rations and indulgencies above specified & to treat him in every way the same as the other Germans now in their employ.

Any advances made to the above named Philip Port on the part of Messrs. Jas. & Wm. Macarthur to enable him to reach Sydney to be gradually deducted out of his wages or extra earnings which he will occasionally have opportunities given him of making if he by good conduct shall merit such indulgence.

[indecipherable]

Jas. & Wm. Macarthur

Witness, [indecipherable]

Sydney, 29th July 1844 being the day on which the above named Philip Post landed in Sydney.

Philip Post is this day discharged having paid his passage money and the balance due upon his A/c.

W. Macarthur.

[Page 319]

Memorandum

The undersigned Philip Post hereby agrees to serve Lachlan Macalister Esq. of Clifton, New South Wales in the capacity of vine dresser and to make himself generally useful for the term of five years to date from the day of his landing in Sydney in consideration of the remuneration hereunder stated. He engages to conduct himself honestly, diligently, soberly & peacably during the period of his engagement and to obey all lawful and reasonable commands on the part of his employer or those whom he may place in authority over him. In remuneration for his services he is to receive wages at the rate of Fifteen pounds (£15) per annum paid quarterly with a ration of 7 lbs meat & 11 lbs flour per week to have a cottage to reside in rent free with half an acre of good land for a Garden also the privilege of grazing one Cow to supply himself with milk and of keeping Pigs & Poultry but upon the express condition that he is not to suffer any mischief to be done by the animals or poultry and not to sell or dispose of any part of the produce either of them or of his garden without his employers consent (the privilege being granted merely to enable him to support himself and family upon their produce) upon pain of being deprived of the indulgence.

And Lachlan Macalister Esq. in consideration of the foregoing terms being completed with strictly observed by the above named agree agree to give him the Wages, rations and indulgences above specified.

Any advances made to the above named on the part of Messrs. Lachlan Macalister Esq. to enable him to reach Sydney to be gradually deducted out of his wages or extra earnings which he will occasionally have opportunities givn him of making if he by good conduct shall merit such indulgence.

[Page 320]

Jacob Hert – Wife & 3 children
[indecipherable] Trebbow – single
Jacob Franc – Wife & 3 children
Philip Post – Wife & 1 child

2.12
4.4
16.16

I have carefully examined Jacob Philip Post, a Vine Dresser in the service of Messrs. J. & W. Macarthur and hereby certify that he is in good health and perfectly able to perform his work according to the terms of his agreement.

N. Anderson
Surgeon

London
17 January 1845

[Page 321]

Those who have not considered the Difficulties which attend Colonization frequently advocate some vast Scheme such as a going forth of all sorts of Persons to settle on waste lands in a place which can only end in disappointment and involve the Government in tedious Details. The mode in the contrary is to invite the youth of the Country to emigrate not in masses but a Pair here and another there, issuing it is true like mere atoms from the mass of Population but forming collectively a considerable body – every Family proceeding to some Friend, or some Connexion – or some Kinsman, be it in Canada, be it in South Africa, or Australia. As if for Instance (to reverse the actual state of Things) the Farms and Cottages of the numerous Localities in the United Kingdom could contain and provide for thrice their present number of Inmates, and were continually receiving the married youth of some over populous Country – while themselves the present Inhabitants of these Cottages went forth with their local experience to plough more lands to establish more dairies, and to grow more corn, and make more cheese on the wild Lands and unsubdued Pastures by which it is here assumed such Farms and Cottages are surrounded. The effect of such a Plan would be to place British colonization on a sound Basis, and to render it really efficient in removing the existing Evils in the social System of the Parent State. It would benefit alike the Country that sends forth and the Country that receives. This Emigration drawn from the humble class which seeks bodily subsistence, would be surely followed by the educated class which presses not less eagerly for intellectual employment. These demands when a sphere can be found for them, are the strength

[Page 322]

of a nation when otherwise its weakness.

As respects Canada a Migration of Persons of the nature here contemplated, would ultimately supersede and prevent the miscellaneous influx into it of destitute Persons of every age who at present causes much local embarrassment – as regards South Africa, it would be the means of peopling its waste lands with Inhabitants possessing British Tastes, Sympathies and Feelings and as relates to Australia not only would the plan promote these advantages but, in a very few years, if not at once, so raise the value of Land that it would be equivalent to the minimum price, which the Act of Parliament has determined. All that the State needs to do in furtherance of such a Plan is to insist and take measures, that they who are conveyed across the Ocean at the Expense and Bounty of the Public, shall be young married Persons of the agricultural Class proceeding from section of the Population of the United Kingdom as exhibited in this Table of the Census of 1841.

Persons – Persons

5 years and under – 3,566,775 – 13,830
6 to 10 – 3,180,546 – 12,332
11 to 15 – 2,898,424 – 11,238
16 to 20 – 2,708,361 – 10,501
21 to 30 – 4,572,287 – 17,728
31 to 40 – 3,209,920 – 12,446
41 to 50 – 2,371,966 – 9,197
51 to 60 – 1,620,336 – 67,283
61 to 70 – 993,598 – 3,853
71 to 80 – 471,965 – 1,830
81 to 90 – 126,667 – 491
91 to 100 – 13,0045 – 51
101 and upwards – 410 – 2
Age not specified – 36,448 – 218

Total 25,790,746 – 100,000

January 1845

[In right margin]

The Population of One Hundred Thousand.

[Page 323]

Camden
19 May 1845

Gentn.

A day or two since I was consulted by 3 Germans in your service as to the proper steps to be taken by them to try the validity of a certain Agreement said to be entered into by them with one Edward Macarthur in Germany, and as to the probable cost &c. It appears by their statement that the Overseer placed over them has been for some time since extremely arbitrary & more so lately rising to a certain charge having been preferred against him by one John Young, but which you considered too trifling to notice, & if it can be proved to you that the Overseer has been heard to say that they (meaning the 3 Germans)

[Page 324]

“should not stay another year in the vineyard, for he would render them so wretched as to compel them to take to the Bush" or words to that effect, you will doubtless consider their complaints are not without foundation. After hearing their tale I told them I would consider which was the best course for them to pursue and requested them to call again – they are so desperate and so determined and I find not without means that I am confident they will do all in their power to make void the Agreement &, if what they state respecting the terms be correct, not without some probability of success.

I am led to make this communication to you presuming you to be unacquainted with their intentions in complaint. It is not for

[Page 325]

me to dictate to you as to the best mode to pursue under the circumstances, but I think at this stage of the proceedings & before they incur any further expense, they might be persuaded to remain where they are, if they could be assured of no further annoyance from their Overseer.

They will be at my Office I expect on Wednesday & if I can be of any service to you in this matter I shall be most happy – they appear to have but little other cause of complaint other than the conduct of their Overseer.

Waiting a reply at your earliest convenience,

I am
Gentn.
Your obt. Serv.
Clements Lester.

Messrs. Macarthur
Camden

[Page 326]

Camden, 19th May 1845

Sir,

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this days date apprising me that you have been consulted by three Germans in our service as to the proper steps to be taken to try the validity of a certain agreement said to have been entered into by them with one Edward Macarthur in Germany &c. Also that they appear to have been induced to take this step not so much from any cause of complaint against their employers, as on the score of alledged mistreatment and threats on the part of their Overseer. And further suggesting that at this stage of the proceedings it is probable that they may be induced to remain where they are if they can be assured of no further

[Page 327]

annoyance from their Overseer.

In reply, I In the first place I beg you will accept my acknowledgments for the urbanity of your communication and the tender of services which it contains, and further in reply to say that taking into consideration the character & conduct of the parties to whom I conclude you elude being alone considered, it is a matter of perfect indifference to me whether they remain in our service or rot – in fact I would rather be without them. But being in possession of an agreement securing their services for certain considerations during a term of years to James & William Macarthur, which agreement I believe possesses all the formality & precision requisite to make it binding upon the parties, I am not at all disposed to forego such claims as by virtue

[Page 328]

of the said agreement are lawfully vested in my brother & myself I am lawfully invested - not as I have said that I attach the slightest value to their services – but because it seems desirable that servants should understand that contracts voluntarily entered into on their part, are not to be set aside merely because such is their will.

And now, Sir, having had opportunities, better it is to be presumed than by you than you can possibly have possessed to observe and estimate the characters of these people, and what sort of reliance may be placed upon their veracity, you will perhaps excuse me if I caution you how you proceed in any matter. Solely upon the authority of their statements, I know them to be utterly regardless of the truth. I believe, that if need were, there would be no lack here of credible witnesses to swear that they would not believe them upon oath in the most trifling matters.

Nevertheless the law is of course open to them as to every one else, if however they should find

[Page 329]

the consequences unpleasant, they will know whom they have to thank.

I amm, Sir,
Your most obedient servant
Wm. Macarthur

Mr. Clements Lester

[Page 330]

Charles Pahl commenced working as a Yearly Servant with James & William Macarthur Esqs. on the 4th December 1844 and received the following sums in Cheques and Cash from the above Gentlemen since the above period, viz –

1845 – April by Cheque Balance of A/c - £2.18.6
1845 – July by Cheque Balance of A/c – 3.3.7½
1845 – October by Cheque Balance of A/c – 3.10.9
1845 – October by Cheque for Vine Cuttings – 3.16.10½
1846 – January by Cheque Balance of A/c – 3.11.4½
1846 – April by Cheque Balance of A/c – 3.9.0½
1846 – April by Cash for Watching – 2.0.0

£22.10.2

[Page 331]

BOUNDARIES PROPOSED FOR EASTERN AUSTRALIA, BY MAJOR SIR THOMAS MITCHELL, F.G.S. AND M.R.G.S., SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

See “Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia, &c." – London, 1838 – Vol. 2, Page 324.

It has been observed, that the soil in New South Wales is good only where trap, limestone, or granite rocks occur. Sandstone, however, predominates so much more than all these, as to cover about six-sevenths of the whole surface comprised within the boundaries of nineteen counties. Wherever this happens to be the surface rock, little besides barren sand is found in the place of soil. Deciduous vegetation scarcely exists there, no turf is formed, for the trees and shrubs being very inflammable, conflagrations take place so frequently and extensively in the woods during summer, as to leave very little vegetable matter to return to earth. On the highest mountains, and in places the most remote and desolate, I have always found on every dead trunk on the ground, and living tree of any magnitude also, the marks of fire; and thus it appeared that these annual fires extend to every place. In the regions of sandstone, the territory is, in short, good for nothing, and is besides, very generally inaccessible, thus presenting a formidable obstruction to any communication between isolated spots of a better description.

Land near Sydney has always been preferred to that which is remote, where the quality may have been equal, yet throughout the wide extent of twenty-three millions of acres, only about 4,400,000 acres have been found worth having, while the owners of this appropriated land within the limits, have been obliged to send their cattle beyond them for the sake of pasturage. From the labour necessary to form lines of communication across such a country, New South Wales still affords an excellent field for the employment of convicts, and although some of the present colonists may be against the continuance of transportation, it must be admitted that the increase and extension of population and the future prosperity of the country, depends much upon the completion of such public works. The dominion of man cannot, indeed, be extended well over nature there without much labour of this description. The prisoners should be worked in gangs, and guarded and coerced according to some well organized system. It can require no argument to shew how much more pernicious to the general interests of mankind the amalgamation of criminals with the people of a young colony must be, than with the dense population of old countries where a better organized police, and laws suited to the community, are in full and efficient operation, both for the prevention and detection of crime: but the employment of convicts on public works, is not inseparable from the question of allowing such people to become colonists; and whoever desires to see the noble harbour of Sydney made the centre of a flourishing country, extending from the tropic to the shores of the southern ocean, rather than one only of several small settlements along the coast, will not object to relieve the mother country by employing her convicts even at a greater expense than they cost the colonists at present. With a well arranged system of roads radiating from such a harbour, even the sand stone wastes, extensive though they be, might be overstept, and the good parts being connected by roads, the produce of the tropical and temperate regions could then be brought to one common market.

Where there is so much unproductive surface, the unavoidable dispersion of population renders good lines of communication more essentially necessary, and these must consist of roads, for there are neither navigable rivers, nor, in general, the means of forming canals. This colony might thus extend northward to the tropic of Capricorn, westward to the 145th degree of east longitude; the southern portion having for boundaries the Darling, the Murray, and the sea coast. Throughout the extensive territory thus bounded, one-third, probably,

[Page 332]

8

consists of desert interior plains; one-fourth, of land available for pasturage or cultivation; and the remainder, of rocky mountain, or impassable or unproductive country. Perhaps the greater portion of really good land within the whole extent, will be found to the southward of the Murray, for there the country consists chiefly of trap, granite, or limestone. The amount of surface comprised in European kingdoms, affords no criterion of what may be necessary for the growth of a new people in Australia. Extreme differences of soil, climate, and seasons, may indeed be usefully reconciled and rendered available to one community there, but this must depend on ingenious adaptations, aided by all the facilities man’s art can supply, in the free occupation of a very extensive region. Agricultural resources must be ever scanty and uncertain in a country where there is little moisture to nourish vegetation. We have seen, from the state of the Darling, that all the surface water flowing from the vast territory west of the dividing range and extending north and south between the Murray and the tropic, is insufficient to support the current of one small river. The country southward of the Murray is not so deficient in this respect, for there the mountains are higher, the rocks more varied, and the soil, consequently, better; while the vast extent of open grassy downs seems just what was most necessary for the prosperity of the present colonists, and the encouragement of emigration from Europe.

Every variety of feature may be seen in these southern parts, from the lofty alpine region on the east, to the low grassy plains in which it terminates on the west. The Murray, perhaps the largest river in all Australia, arises amongst those mountains, and receives in its course various other rivers of considerable magnitude. These flow over extensive plains in directions nearly parallel to the main stream, and thus irrigate and fertilize a great extent of rich country. Falling from mountains of great height, the current of these rivers is perpetual, whereas in other parts of Australia the rivers are too often dried up, and seldom indeed deserve any other name than chains of ponds.

Hills of moderate elevation occupy the central country between the Murray and the sea, being thinly or partially wooded, and covered with the richest pasturage. The lower country, both on the northern and southern skirts of these hills, is chiefly open; slightly undulating towards the coast on the south, and, in general, well watered.

The grassy plains which extend northward from these thinly wooded hills to the banks of the Murray, are chequered by the channels of many streams falling from them, and by the more permanent and extensive waters of deep lagoons, which are numerous on the face of these plains, as if intended by a bounteous Providence to correct the deficiencies of a climate otherwise too dry for an industrious and increasing people, by preserving in these abundant reservoirs the surplus waters of the large river; and, indeed, a finer country for cattle stations than this, can scarcely be imagined.

In the western portion small rivers radiate from the Grampians, an elevated and isolated mass, presenting no impediment to a free communication through the fine country around its base. Hence that enormous labour necessary in order to obtain access to some parts, and for crossing continuous ranges to reach others, by passes like those so essential to the prosperity of the present colony, might be in a great degree dispensed with in that southern region.

Towards the sea coast on the south, and adjacent to the open downs between the Grampians and Port Phillip, there is a low tract consisting of very rich black soil, apparently the best imaginable for the cultivation of grain in such a climate.

On parts of the low ridges of Hills near Cape Nelson and Portland Bay, are forests of very large trees of stringy-bark, iron-bark, and other useful species of eucalyptus, much of which is probably destined yet to float in vessels on the adjacent sea.

The character of the country behind Cape Northumberland affords fair promise of a harbour in the shore to the westward. Such a port would probably

[Page 333]

9

possess advantages over any other on the southern coast, for a railroad from thence along the skirts of the level interior country would require but little artificial levelling, and might extend to the tropic of Capricorn, or even beyond it, thus affording the means of expeditious communication between all the fine districts on the interior side of the coast ranges, and a sea-port to the westward of Bass’s Straits.

The Murray, fed by the lofty mountains on the east, carries to the sea a body of fresh water sufficient to irrigate the whole country, and this is in general so level, even to a great distance from its banks, that the abundant waters of the river might probably be turned into canals, for the purpose either of supplying natural deficiencies of water at particular places, or of affording means of transport across the wide plains.

The high mountains in the east have not yet been explored, but their very aspect is refreshing in a country where the summer heat is often very oppressive. The land is, in short, open and available in its present state for all the purposes of civilized man. We traversed it in two directions with heavy carts, meeting with no other obstruction than the softness of the rich soil, and in returning over flowery plains and green hills fanned by the breezes of early spring, I named this region Australia Felix, the better to distinguish it from the parched deserts of the interior country, where we had wandered so unprofitably and so long.

This territory, still for the most part, in a state of nature, presents a fair page for any geographical arrangement, whether of county divisions – lines of communication – or scites of towns, &c. &c. The growth of a colony there might be trained according to one general system, with a view to various combinations of soil and climate, and not left to chance, as in old countries – or, which would perhaps be worse, to the partial or narrow views of the first settlers. The plan of a whole state might be arranged there like that of an edifice, before the foundation is laid, and a solid foundation seems necessary where a large superstructure is likely to be built. The accompanying sketch of the limits I would propose for the colony of New South Wales, is intended to show also how the deficiencies of such a region might be compensated, and the advantages combined for the convenience and accommodation of a civilized and industrious people. The rich pasture land beyond the mountains is already connected by roads with the harbour of Sydney, and the system, though not complete, has been at least sufficiently carried into effect, to justify the preference of that town and port as a capital and common centre, not only for the roads, but for steam navigation around the coasts, extending in each direction about 900 miles. The coast country affords the best prospects for the agriculturist, but the arable spots being of difficult access by land, his success would depend much on such immediate means of communication with Sydney by water, and on the facility his position would thus afford, of shipping his produce to neighbouring colonies.

It would be establishing a lasting monument of the beneficial influence of British power and colonization, thus to engraft a new and flourishing state on a region now so desolate and unproductive; but this seems only possible under very extensive arrangements, and with such means as England alone can supply:-

“Here the great mistress of the seas is known,
By empires founded, - not by states o’erthrown."

LICENSED OCCUPATION OF WASTE LANDS BEYOND THE BOUNDARIES.
Extract from the Report of the Committee on Immigration; 1840 – Page 5.

In reviewing the several projected resources for rendering the Land Revenue productive and permanent, for the continued as well as the sufficiently extensive introduction of fresh labourers, Your Committee have not failed to

[Page 334]

bestow attention upon the effect which the licensed occupation of Waste Lands beyond the boundaries, must produce upon the sale of lands within the limits of location. The extraordinary difference of outlay required for the purchase of a large tract of grazing land at the minimum price of 12s. per acre, and for the occupation of a similar extent under a depasturing license, must be deemed to hold out inducements on behalf of the latter practice, and in the same proportion to discourage the purchase of Government land by owners of stock. This calculation is so easy, and the result so clear, that it might be at first sight held conclusively to shew that the Government is striking at the root of its own resources, by the system of allowing the occupation of land by license. Your Committee, however, have not been able, after very carefully weighing all the attendant circumstances, to arrive at the conclusion either that the present policy of Government is erroneous in principle; or that the productiveness of the Land Fund would be permanently increased by relinquishing the system of granting depasturing licenses. The lands yet remaining for sale, within the limits of location, are of such an inferior quality, that it may be doubtful how far any system for forcing a sale could be effectual; since even at the minimum price they could not generally yield a profitable return for grazing purposes. Should the Licensing system, therefore, be discontinued, it is not possible to devise by what other means provision could be made, as fast as is necessary, for the rapidly increasing stock of the Settlers. Even those of the longest standing could not at once furnish the funds necessary for such an annual extension of their landed properties by fresh purchases; while an effectual bar would be interposed to the success of those numerous enterprising young men who are constantly engaging in the charge of stock, and thereby laying the foundation of future independence. In the majority of these instances, Your Committee feel assured that this now profitable mode of employment would be rendered impracticable, but for the resource afforded to small capitalists in depasturing upon lands held under license. In this way, there is a continual augmentation of capital arising, which indirectly tends, in a variety of ways, to swell the public resources; and whether it fall to the share of the older Settler, or of the more recent Immigrant, there can be no doubt that the accumulation will be, and indeed is, for the greater part, invested in the purchase of land. Without offering an opinion, therefore, as to whether there should be an extension of the limits within which lands may be selected for purchase, or whether the rate of charge for licenses to depasture stock upon vacant Crown lands, would admit of an increase, (points upon which the Executive Government is fully competent to decide,) Your Committee have no hesitation in recommending that, under any circumstances, the vacant Crown lands, beyond the boundaries, established from time to time for the location of Settlers, should be allowed to be occupied in virtue of a license, and of a certain annual payment as at present, for every head of stock kept thereon. The lands thus kept back temporarily from purchase, encourage the increase of stock to an extent which would be otherwise impracticable; they give rise to the accumulation of capital, which ultimately finds its way principally into the public coffers, as the price of purchased land; and while the rented lands within the limits, as well as those occupied by virtue of licenses beyond them, are producing a certain annual income, they are attaining a prospective value which will be realized if the sale of them be not prematurely allowed, and which they would not reach if at once thrown open to purchase.

[Page 335]

BRIEF REMARKS ON COLONIZATION,
Lieut.-Colonel Macarthur

London
Printed by Harrison and Co., St. Martin’s Lane
1846

[Page 336]

[Blank page]

[Page 337]

The charge on the Colonial Revenue for “Public Worship" is £30,000, and £10,875 for Schools. So that a Population of less than 200,000 contributes about one eighth of its Revenue for the advancement of Religion and Education. Under what System of Colonization, as considered apart from Emigration, could more effectual means be taken for the moral progress of the Inhabitants? And it is surely in this progress that the excellence of any social system, whether in States or Colonies, must chiefly reside.

In a field of ordinary fertility or productiveness, facilities in obtaining labour will always insure an adequate influx of the superior classes.

[Page 338]

[Blank page]

[Page 339]

BRIEF REMARKS ON COLONIZATION.

The early adoption, by Her Majesty’s Government, of a proposition which, in the year 1831, Early Grey, then Lord Howick, Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, had made to it, of devoting to the important object of emigration to New South Wales funds arising in that country from the sale of land, gave for a time a remarkable impulse there to colonization. The inhabitants generally purchased lands largely, believing that if the proceeds were employed in the introduction of farm servants, it would be equivalent to the system which had prevailed from the first establishment of the colony, namely, of granting lands gratuitously, and, by this conversion of capital, give to such lands an earlier value than they could otherwise acquire.

For the purpose of combining individual enterprise with the more general and extensive operations of the Government, in carrying into effect a good system of emigration, bounties, payable out of the land-sale fund, were granted to those colonists who introduced, under the regulations of the colonial authorities, labourers and their families from the United Kingdom. The writer of these observations,

[Page 340]

2

Brief Remarks

and his brothers, owing to their connexion with the colony, and the early devotion of their parents before them to every object that might influence its prosperity, engaged freely and successfully in this introduction of agricultural labourers.

In six year, to November 1842, they conveyed thither 247 men, women, and children, from the counties of Dorset and Kent and banks of the Rhine, without the occurrence of one single death or casualty in their four months’ voyage across the ocean. These families were at liberty on their arrival to seek other employment in the colony, on making good the difference between the bounty granted by the local government, on their landing, and the actual cost of their outfit and passage. The largest conditional repayment by any one party would have been twenty-five pounds, being in the case of a labourer, his wife, and six children, and in every instance it was agreed to remit five pounds of the sum so advanced until the debt was extinguished; so that many of the emigrants who had married in England but a few weeks previous to their embarkation, could have had but little to repay, had they passed into the employment of other persons.

During the voyage, each family had a separate cabin, with bedding and utensils, as well for use on shipboard as to serve afterwards in their dwellings on shore. Materials were provided for their occupation at sea, and the money they so earned, when laid out in articles of clothing of their own making, while on the passage to Sydney, enabled many, who had come insufficiently clad, to provide themselves and children with ample raiment by means of their industry.

[Page 341]

3

On Colonization.

On their arrival in the colony, they were occupied as shepherds, ploughmen, vine-dressers, and in various branches of husbandry. Schools of instruction were provided for their children, and at the termination of their engagements, those who chose it were settled on fertile land, within a short distance of good markets.

While individual enterprise thus gave an impulse to this happy system of colonization and society, the Government, either immediately, or by means of licensed agents, had introduced, in thirteen years to 1844, a considerable number of emigrants into the colony. In one single year, 1841, as many as 18,996 men, women, and children, had arrived, and collectively, during the whole period, about 62,000 were provided with a free passage at the public expense.

Out of this number, and during the first ten years of the system, 51,736 men, women, and children * were conveyed to this colony, in return for an outlay in the purchase of crown lands, by the colonists, of 1,000,583l.,and therefore without creating any charge on the revenues of the United Kingdom. And there is reason to believe that with these persons, about 34,000, for the most part, probably, of the class of employers, had also arrived, whose passage was defrayed by themselves, thus forming with the others an aggregate body of 96,000 colonists.

*
Men – 17,421
Women – 20,451
Children – 13,864

Total – 51,736

[Page 342]

4

Brief Remarks

The supply, however, of farm-servants and shepherds, which so large a number of persons might be supposed to afford, did not keep pace with the demand for them, and everywhere throughout the colony, the great interests by which it is upheld, became subject to that most injurious of social evils, namely, the competition of employers for the services of hired servants, without whom no property of old or recent standing could be maintained.

Numbers of person, consequently, who went to New South Wales for the purpose of investing their capital in land and live stock, found farming there beset with so many difficulties that they were induced to abandon, for more hazardous courses, an enterprise no longer inviting.

The Bishop of Australia has very clearly shown how the difficulty had arisen.

“When a ship from England arrives in New south Wales, freighted with immigrants, a demand is immediately made on the colonial treasury for payment of the passage-money, and shortly after, the vessel may be on her way back with the money so received.

“Were this operation often repeated in the colony it would lead to poverty.

“If indeed the fable of the heathen mythology were reversed, and the immigrants as soon as they touch the soil could render it productive, then in truth the case would be widely different.

“But such was not the fact; one-third at least were children, one-third more were women, whose offspring might become labourers, but they were not such themselves; and the remaining third of the

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5

On Colonization.

immigrants, owing to their want of experience and other causes, could not at once be expected to repay the expense of their introduction."

For the reasons thus assigned * the purchase of land in the colony became an unprofitable speculation, and the land-sale fund, unless some plan can be devised by which the introduction of farm-servants shall precede and not follow such sale, affords no prospect of again becoming the means of sustaining an European emigration, greatly desirable as would be such a measure both for the colony and the parent state.

Very recent accounts from the former confirm previous statements of the want of shepherds and herdsmen having become a great and most alarming evil, which was fast leading to the insecure practice of keeping two, three, and even four thousand sheep under the care of a single shepherd.

The scarcity of labour, and the impossibility of finding an adequate market for stock, was the occasion in 1844 of upwards of 20,000 horned cattle and nearly 218,000 sheep being slaughtered for the tallow which they afforded; constituting, as it appears, an article of export, valued in that year at 83,511l., and giving employment to no less than 47 establishments for converting sheep and cattle into tallow.

While on the one hand there is this evidence of the superfluity in the colony of one great means of subsistence, applications, on the other, have been made from Ireland for resuming emigration from thence to New South Wales.

* See Appendix A.

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6

Brief Remarks

Indeed there can be no doubt that, with a proper selection of persons, numbers might be introduced as well from Ireland as from some districts in England with great advantage to the public and to the individuals themselves, as will be evident from a consideration of the returns in the Appendix of the population, exports, and imports of the Colony *.

The Legislative Council of New south Wales, and the colonists generally, have for years besought the Home Government to concede to them for immigration, a purpose in which the United Kingdom has so great an interest, a loan on the security of the available lands of the colony. And should this security be deemed inadequate collateral security might be obtained by the local Legislature, rendering it imperative that every employer of farm-servants, or labourers, introduced by means of such loan, should pay annually a rateable proportion of the cost of their passage from Europe.

Thus sustained, the land-sales would gradually revive, and the funds derived from thence and the labour-rate together be sufficient to replace, with interest, a proportion of the capital annually, until a few years the whole was repaid. So that it might again be employed in the continuous conveyance to the colony of a class of persons at present of the greatest value there, but who now create the utmost embarrassment in this country; a class, indeed, whose numbers increase instead of diminish, at a ratio with their poverty. Hence they cannot better their condition by passing into other countries; and thus a

* See appendix B.

[Page 345]

7

On Colonization.

superior class, who can ill be spared at home, particularly in Ireland, are compelled to expatriate themselves by thousands annually, and seek an asylum in the United States.

The mode of emigration contemplated in these pages, if found to answer in Australia, where the system is well understood, might afterwards be gradually extended to the whole circle of Her Majesty’s colonies.

Some knowledge of the circumstances here briefly stated, and an acquaintance also of much of the theory and details of colonization, have induced the writer to make the following general remarks on the subject in the hope of their inviting superior minds to reflect on so important a topic.

Colonization.

The word “plantation," the old English term for a colony, conveys to the mind, by analogy, an idea not only of the first difficulties which attend colonization, but also of the mode of gradually proceeding with its extension.

Excepting under very favourable circumstances, it is unsafe to colonize until the waste or unsubdued region be in some measure prepared for the reception of the infant society. When once established, the new community is then in a condition to protect and shelter other offshoots from the parent stem. But a miscellaneous removal of people may be deemed as hazardous an experiment as the simultaneous transplanting of a primeval forest. There should at all times be selection; and although it is true the State

[Page 346]

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Brief Remarks

cannot, when colonizing, choose the most suitable objects for its purpose, in the same manner that the husbandman selects saplings for his sylvan domain, yet by its regulations the State may in a measure provide, that they who are willing to leave the old society, to be incorporated in the new, shall be persons of such an age and class, as may be most advantageous for the emigrants themselves, as well as for the mother country and her colonies.

The State should colonize not with indiscriminate masses, but by its policy render it of advantage to the youth of the country to emigrate, a pair here and a pair there, issuing, it is true, like mere atoms from the vast aggregate of population, but forming collectively a considerable body. Every such family, it is here supposed, would proceed to some friend, or some connexion, or some kinsman, be it in Canada, South Africa, or Australia. As if, for instance, to reverse the actual state of things, the farms and cottages in the numerous localities of the United Kingdom could contain and provide for thrice their present number of inmates, and were continually receiving the married youth of some over-populous country, while themselves, the present inhabitants, went forth with their local experience to plough more lands, to establish more dairies, and thus to grow more corn, and raise more produce, on the wild lands and unsubdued pastures, by which it is here assumed such farms and cottages are surrounded.

Such a plan would place British colonization on a sound basis, and render it really efficient in providing for the (as it is practically found) redundant population of the three kingdoms, and so remove many of

[Page 347]

9

On Colonization.

the evils of their social system. Civil and religious institutions would follow close on the progress of society. The homage which successful industry ever pays to the arts and establishments of peace, would ensure the progress of these institutions in every town and village, as they arose, in the native waste, and gladdened it by their presence.

By affecting the principle and touching the sources of population, colonization would permanently benefit alike the countries that send forth and the countries that receive, and the emigrants voluntarily proceeding from the humbler class which seeks bodily subsistence, would be surely followed by the educated class, which presses not less eagerly for intellectual employment. These demands, when a sphere can be found for them, are the strength of a nation; when otherwise, its weakness.

As respects Canada, migration of persons of the nature here contemplated would ultimately supersede and prevent the influx into it of the many destitute persons of every age, who annually cause so much local embarrassment; as regards South Africa, it would be the means of peopling its wastes with inhabitants possessing British tastes, sympathies, and feelings; and, as relates to Australia, not only would all these advantages be promoted, but in a few years, if not at once, the value of land there would be so raised as to provide immediate funds to defray the cost of emigration from the United Kingdom.

All that the State needs to do in furtherance of so great an object is to announce that it would provide a free passage to any one of its chief groups of colonies, for every man and wife under thirty years

[Page 348]

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Brief Remarks

of age on their first marriage, and without children &, upon the simple production of a duly authenticated certificate from the local authorities that an assured place or provision awaited them in the new land of their adoption.

The following table of population clearly exhibits the effect of this plan, showing that a departure from home of every 17,728 emigrants of Section E, men and women in equal proportions, would be equivalent in a few years to the departure of 100,000 persons:-

[In left hand margin] E
[In right hand margin] The proportion in one hundred thousand.
5 years and under – 3,566,755 persons – 13,830 persons
6 to 10 – 3,180,546 – 12,332
11 to 15 – 2,898,424 – 11,238
16 to 20 – 2,708,361 – 10,501
21 to 30 – 4,572,287 – 17,728
31 to 40 – 3,209,920 – 12,446
41 to 50 – 2,371,966 – 9,197
51 to 60 – 1,620,336 – 6,283
61 to 70 – 993,598 – 3,853
71 to 80 – 471,965 – 1,830
81 to 90 – 126,667 – 491
91 to 100 – 13,043 – 51
101 and upwards – 410 – 2
Ages not specified – 56,448 – 218

Total population of the United Kingdom – 25,790,746 – 100,000

In the first years the cost of such a measure would not be comparatively large, and at no time, and not until its advantages had been universally recognized by every public economist, would it pro-

* There could be no valid objection to the reception of children, provided parties in the colonies gave security for their maintenance.

[Page 349]

11

On Colonization.

bably exceed half a million sterling annually, or less by one full tithe than the average yearly outlay for the relief and maintenance of the poor in England and Wales *. But at such period the State would be better prepared to meet this maximum of expense than to provide for a small outlay at the commencement of the system.

An emigration of 25,000 families annually which such a sum might be adequate to convey to North America, South Africa, and Australia together, would be more than the population of the United Kingdom could long sustain.

London, September, 1846.

* From Lady-day 1813, to 1844 inclusive, £238,153,571 was levied for poor-rates and county-rates in England and Wales, out of which, £190,369,632 was expended for the relief and maintenance of the poor.

[Page 350]

[Blank page]

[Page 351]

APPENDIX A,

Extract of a Petition to the House of Commons, in favour of Colonization, from Merchants and others residing in London. See Appendix to 15th Report, April 1843, page 134.

A project, whereby the capitalist was to invest money in colonial lands, and the labourers introduced by means of funds thus derived, were at a due and not remote period, to give to such lands an equivalent value, had, for about ten years, been in operation in New South Wales.

But, it appears by the emigration papers, printed by order of your honourable House, that this project is found no longer to make provision for the two and kindred objects which it meditated.

Because, as your Petitioners believe, the number of available labourers conveyed to that colony by means of funds derived from the sales of land, were too few, and did not afford to the colony sufficient power to sustain its various branches of industry in that continued activity which the outlay of its capital in colonial lands required.

The number of shepherds were too few for its flocks of sheep; and, cramped by the insufficiency of labourers, as well in this as in other departments of rural economy, the purchase of waste lands proves not to afford a profit.

The cause of this inadequacy of labour, of its inferiority to the amount of capital employed, was, that the people, for whose introduction into the colony the greater part of that capital had been expended, were imported as men, women,

[Page 352]

14

Appendix

and children, a mode of introducing them most wise as respects the immigrants themselves, and most judicious as may regard the peopling of unoccupied lands, but which occasions, nevertheless, during the first years after they arrive, a serious burthen on the new country by which they are received.

During the ten years of the operation of New South Wales of this system of immigration, about 80,000 men, women, and children, of the class of capitalists and that of labourers together, were conveyed to its shores, without occasioning any charge upon the revenues of England.

But, on the contrary, she had the first and immediate benefit of the expenditure in her own markets of all the money required for the transit of these people across the ocean, and she now participates with the colony in the mutual advantages of that commerce which this accession to the numbers of its inhabitants has created.

It seems, therefore, to your Petitioners, but a reasonable adjustment that England, which has the command of money at a low rate of interest, should allow to the colony, which cannot obtain money excepting at much higher rates, the use of funds on the security of its unsold lands, to be expended here at home, in providing means of conveyance to the colony of as many people as can there be advantageously employed.

“First. We (the colonists) want first, and before all, to ensure the regular introduction into the colony of a sufficient supply of labour.

“Second. We want to effect this without stripping the colony at the same time of that which, no less than labour, is necessary to support the value of property – accumulated capital. These two objects a loan promises to provide for.

“third. We want to sell every year so much land as will secure the payment of interest on sums borrowed, and leave a surplus gradually to extinguish the debt.

[Page 353]

15

Appendix

“Fourth. We want to induce the graziers to become purchasers to this extent.

“Fifth. We want to give the occupier of the soil an interest in it above that of the mere squatter, and yet to avoid compromising the rights of the Crown, or alienating disproportionate quantities of land at an insufficient price.

“Sixth. We want to render the occupier of land satisfied with his position, and to encourage him to attend to the civil, social, and religious welfare of himself and of those around him; thus laying the foundation of a happy and flourishing state of society throughout the length and breadth, and to the utmost limits of this extended country."

The Petitioners address themselves to your honourable House, because in the present state of this country they consider that systematic colonization will have an effect in favourably influencing its condition, analogous to that produced by an active interchange of commodities, an interchange or traffic which, from the first, is always found to accompany, and afterwards to follow, every peaceful migration of people.

Your Petitioners cannot conclude their petition in more appropriate terms than those which are embodied in the ninth resolution of the Legislative Council of New South Wales, urging the policy of raising a loan to be applied to emigration *.

“The shipping interest must be promoted by the extent of tonnage employed in the emigration service. The agricultural interest would derive benefit through the demand for victualling so many persons during a voyage of such duration; while few events would be so favourable to the manufacturing interest of Great Britain, as the rapid growth in this colony of a population dependent for the supply of their wants upon the products of its industry, and engaged in raising a staple article of export, which, while it supplied the raw material for an important article of manufacture, would enable them to be extensive consumers of British goods."

* Emigration papers, 1843, page 144.

[Page 354]

16

Appendix

Appendix B
Statistics of New South Wales

Population – Ordinary Revenue, £ - Proceeds of Land Sales, £ - Value of Imports, £ - Value of Exports, £.

1836 – 77,096 – 183,218 – 123,049 – 1,237,406 – 748,624
1837 – 85,267 – 229,158 – 117,583 – 1,297,491 – 760,054
1838 – 97,912 – 220,780 – 112,802 – 1,579,277 – 802,768
1839 – 114,386 – 252,996 – 157,661 – 2,236,371 – 948,776
1840 – 129,463 – 332,332 – 316,979 – 3,014,189 – 1,399,692
1841 – 149,669 – 370,273 – 93,538 – 2,527,988 – 1,023,397
1842 – 159,889 -371,937 – 19,444 – 1,455,059 – 1,067,411
1843 – 165,541 – 322,588 – 11,030 – 1,550,544 – 1,172,320
1844 – 173,377 – 266,724 – 8,818 – 931,260 – 1,128,115

[Page 355]

[Blank page]

[Page 356]

[Blank page]

[Page 357]

Jan. 22, 1847

To His Excellency Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy, K.C.H., Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of the Territory of New South Wales and its Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same, &c., &c., &c.

The Petition of the undersigned Colonists of New South Wales.

“May it please Your Excellency,

We, the Undersigned, Landholders, Bankers, Merchants, Graziers, Shipowners, Traders, and others, deeply interested in the welfare of this Colony, beg respectfully to solicit Your Excellency’s attention to the prevalent and increasing deficiency of labour; and to represent to Your Excellency the urgent necessity for an immediate Renewal of Immigration.

To those engaged in Pastoral and Agricultural pursuits, especially in the remote Districts, this deficiency of labour has, for some time past, been more and more apparent. Not only has it occasioned an augmented expenditure, with consequent loss of profit, but, in many instances, actual destruction of valuable property, more particularly in sheep shearing, harvest, and the conveyance of produce to Market. Nor has the completion of the more pressing part of these important operations been followed by the relief which might have been expected: on the contrary, the difficulty of obtaining servants for the various departments of productive industry, as well as for household purposes, is every day becoming greater.

We feel it to be unnecessary to point out to Your Excellency the manifold evils which must result from the continuance of such a state of things – evils which although at first apparently confined to employers of labour, must, at no distant period, react upon the working classes themselves.

We would, therefore, most earnestly and respectfully entreat Your Excellency to take into immediate consideration the critical position in which this Community is placed, and to adopt measures to procure, at the earliest possible period, a renewed supply of labour commensurate with its wants."

[Page 358]

Immigration
January 28th 1847

Address & reply of Sir C. Fitzroy.

[Page 359]

To the Landholders, Bankers, Merchants, Graziers, Ship Owners, Traders and other Colonists of New South Wales.

Gentlemen,

As I am fully aware, both from Official Returns and from information personally obtained during my recent visit to the Western District, of the pressing necessity that exists for the

[Page 360]

the introduction of a more abundant supply of labour into the Colony; and as the State of the Land Fund will now enable the Government to offer an adequate security for raising the funds necessary for this purpose, I am prepared to recommend to Her Majesty’s Government, as forcibly and influentially as I can, that measures may be taken for the immediate resumption of Emigration from the United Kingdom to an extent

[Page 361]

extent of at least 5,000 Statute Adults. I am also fully aware of the importance of keeping up a continuous stream of Immigration equivalent to the demand, so as to prevent those violent fluctuations which have been found to be so injurious to the general interests of the Community,.

C.A. Fitzroy

Government House,
Sydney, January 1847

[Page 362]

[Blank page]

[Page 363]

Sydney
11th Feby. 1847

Sir

In reply to your enquiries on the subject of Immigration to this Colony from the Continent of Europe I beg to state that in 1838 six families of Vignerons from the Duchy of Nassau were sent out under engagement to my brother Mr. W. Macarthur and myself to be employed in the cultivation of our Vineyard at Camden. In 1843 we brought out several more families from the same place.

Of these people about half remain in our service, the others are employed in Vineyard cultivation at Hunters river and in other Districts.

From the experience thus obtained I can have no hesitation in expressing my convictions

S.L. Mrewether, Esq.
& c.

[Page 364]

conviction of the importance as regards Imperial as well as local interests of introducing into this Colony several thousand persons skilled in Vine culture, the making of wine, the preparation of dried fruit and other processes of rural economy with which the peasantry of the British Islands are unacquainted.

My brother Colonel Macarthur who selected and engaged the Families from the Duchy of Nassau would be enabled happy to afford every all the information on the subject in his power should the subject be favourably entertained, as I trust it will by the Home Government.

It was with difficulty that he found any one in 1837 to embark on what was then considered so perilous an adventure. From the accounts sent home by this first party a very different feeling prevailed when he subsequently visited the Duchy of Nassau and at this time I have reason to believe that a large number of persons of the description required would gladly emigrate to this Colony from the Rhenish Wine-growing Provinces.

I have also been informed that many of these people would pay one half of the Passage Money at Rotterdam or at all events an amount equal to the cost of their passage to the American States, and would willingly enter into engagements to repay the Balance by yearly instalments from their Wages.

Such an arrangement would not fail in

[Page 365]

in my opinion to be attended with the best consequences morally, whilst the advantages in an economical point of view, and in keeping up a stream of useful Immigration to our shores are too obvious to require comment.

A supply of skilled labour of a similar kind and in some respects perhaps better suited to this Colony, may I am assured be obtained from the Swiss Cantons, more especially the Pays de Vaud and Neufchatel.

Mr. Latrobe could can I have no doubt afford valuable information in this respect and would have it in his power greatly to facilitate any plan that might be devised for introducing emigrants from those Countries.

I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient Servant.

[Page 366]

Letter relative to German Immigration
11th February 1847
to
F.L.S. Merewether, Esq.

[Page 367]

Private Circulation.

London, July, 1847.

My Lord,

Since my examination before the Select Committee, of which your Lordship is Chairman, I have had access to papers, which place in a very striking point of view the great rapidity with which population is absorbed in the Australian Colonies.

It appears that in eighteen months, during 1841 and 1842, not less than 30,000 immigrants had arrived at Sydney and Port Phillip, of whom about 25,330 were men, women, and children of the labouring class. This addition to the number of colonists constituted at that time almost one-fourth of the entire population of New South Wales, as shown by the previous Census of March, 1841.

Yet not only did the Colony give employment to every available labourer, at wages sufficiently high to enable him and his family to live comfortably and well, but it possessed food in such abundance that the markets, so far from rising by reason of this great increase to the number of the inhabitants, had, on the contrary, a tendency to fall. Thus while in the United Kingdom population inconveniently presses on the means of subsistence, in New South Wales the mere necessaries of life augment at a far greater ratio than the inhabitants.

The obvious remedy for social and financial difficulties, resulting from such very opposite causes, is as much by means of the policy as the power of the Parent State to unite those extremes, so that the material elements of society may be restored to their just and equal balance, and where, as in New South Wales, much of its superabundant food cannot be sent into the United Kingdom, to provide a free ingress from thence into the Colony, for those who may desire to participate in so great an advantage.

In the year 1841 ninety-nine large ships, measuring 35,000 tons, were engaged in the conveyance of Emigrants to that Colony, but neither on this, nor on any similar occasion *, causing thereby any charge on the Revenues of the United Kingdom. On the contrary, its people had the first and immediate benefit of the expenditure in the Home Market of all the money raised in New South Wales, but laid out in the United Kingdom in the equipment of these ships, and it now shares with its Colony in the mutual advantages of the commerce which every accession to the number of the Colonists tends to promote.

With subsistence and a variety of exchangeable products augmenting more rapidly than the population, - if, in 1842, New South Wales could receive with advantage an influx of persons amounting to almost one-fourth of the inhabitants

* In return for an outlay in the purchase of Crown Lands by the Colonists of £1,000,583, the Colonists received from the United Kingdom 17,421 men, 20,451 women, and 13,864 children, in all 51,786 persons of the labouring class. But so inadequate was the amount of labour to be derived in the first years from this immigration, so inferior was it to the amount of capital invested in the purchase of land, that the sales fell off from £316,979 in 1840, to £8,818 in 1844.

[Page 368]

2.

it could at this time, with a population of 200,000, admit into its social system, perhaps fully 50,000 men, women, and children, provided they were conveyed not in one mass, but by monthly drafts, until the whole were located and advantageously distributed in the Colony. When it is remembered that in forty years many now living have seen one single bale of wool from thence of 245 lbs. weight followed in 1846 by an export to England of more than 16,300,000 lbs., it is no unreasonable anticipation that, on a coast such as that of New South Wales *, where steam navigation gives ready access to highly favoured localities for Colonial settlements, annual migrations of 50,000 souls may, within a corresponding period of forty years **, become a continuous migration of inhabitants from the United Kingdom not of 50,000 within a single year, but 50,000 in each month.

Funds alone are wanting to the Colonists for effecting an object so truly worthy of the British race, but by a far-seeing and confiding policy those funds may be created, and with the funds not only the means of transport, but the skilful mariners by whom these vast exodes of the people may safely be transferred from shore to shore, and by the coextensive commerce that must ensue, promoting a universal civilization throughout the empire, augmenting its resources, and adding to its power and renown.

For, although it may be true, that distant Australia requires an expenditure of nearly £20 for the conveyance to it of each adult labourer from the United Kingdom and North America but £5, yet if the capital so expended can be reproduced by the labourer four times more rapidly in the former country than in the latter, the economical disadvantages of distance become of no account in the estimate.

All that the Colonists in Australia have long sought, and now seek, for the due promotion of colonization is the guarantee of the Parent State, by which alone, in the first instance, funds are to be obtained for the conveyance of people across the ocean at a moderate rate of interest.

And it may be worthy of consideration, whether it may not be politic, that she should not in the first year, perhaps not even until the fifth (if need there be,) require the local revenues of the Colony to defray the interest, but retain in her own hands, for the regular payment of such interest, a proportion of each loan.

Because until the children who would as heretofore constitute a large part of every Immigration, are capable of earning their own bread, and the other persons, whether male or female, have acquired some experience in their several avocations,

* The coast line of Eastern Australia, on which the colony of New South Wales is situated, extends from Cape York on the North, to the entrance of Bass’s Straits on the South, in one unbroken line, over a space equal in extent to the shores of France, Portugal, and Spain, from the Gulph of Lyons to the entrance of the British Channel, and possesses climates as fine and soils of as great and varied productiveness as are to be found on the habitable globe.

** When the late Mr. John Macarthur conceived the project of importing Wool from Australia to Great Britain, the Spaniards and Germans almost exclusively supplied the English Market, selling their Wools from ten to twelve shillings the pound, but at present the same description of Wool may be purchased at one-fifth of the money. And it is remarkable that Foreigners now frequent the English Markets in order to purchase Australian Wool. The importation from the whole of the Australian Settlements during the past year amounted to 21,765,270 lbs. of an aggregate importation of 65,255,462 lbs. These colonies receive back of one single branch of English Manufactures alone, Woollen Goods valued at £161,743, of an aggregate exportation from the United Kingdom, to all parts of the world, valued at £6,335,102. But this valuation gives but an inadequate idea of the influence of Australian productiveness on British industry and manufactures. Exclusive of Hosiery this sum is the declared value of upwards of 87,000,000 of yards of fabrics woven from Wool.

[Page 369]

3.

neither the Colony nor its revenues can have derived the full advantage of their presence. No very large portion of the territory of New South Wales has been alienated either by grant or purchase, so that while the Crown continues to hold the land in fee, and does not let any portion of it for too long a term of years, there will always be adequate security for the repayment of every Emigration Loan. Add to this, each loan would be reproduced within a definite period of time, to be again employed, if required, in the great objects of colonization.

But it has been said, why do not the Colonists generally put such limitations to the increase of their flocks in New South Wales, as to prevent the excessive competition for servants which prevails? The simple reply is, that as long as fine wool in the Colony continues to be in great demand in the Parent State, it will be wholly beyond their power.

While such demand for this material exists, it is no more possible to prevent its increase in Australia, than it is possible in parts of the United Kingdom to stay the progressive increase of a redundant population. Nature, no doubt, at length imposes a positive check, (thereby endangering in New South Wales the important relations that exist between Colonial production and Home manufacture,) when, as in that country, vast flocks now perish for want of attendants, in the same manner, that in the United Kingdom entire masses of the population are decimated by poverty, famine, and disease, and thus the sound portions of the community for a time escapes being drawn into the wide spreading vortex. But the recurrence of these fearful vicissitudes it is the province of true Statesmanship to obviate. Alpine waters, when uncontrolled, may desolate and submerge the plain; but conducted by the hand of science, they become one of the main elements of productiveness.

I have, &c.,
(Signed) Edward Macarthur.

[Page 370]

Private Circulation.

Population, Colonies and Commerce.

London,
July, 1847.

[Page 371]

Private Circulation.

London, July, 1847.

My Lord,

Since my examination before the Select Committee, of which your Lordship is Chairman, I have had access to papers, which place in a very striking point of view the great rapidity with which population is absorbed in the Australian Colonies.

It appears that in eighteen months, during 1841 and 1842, not less than 30,000 immigrants had arrived at Sydney and Port Phillip, of whom about 25,330 were men, women, and children of the labouring class. This addition to the number of colonists constituted at that time almost one-fourth of the entire population of New South Wales, as shown by the previous Census of March, 1841.

Yet not only did the Colony give employment to every available labourer, at wages sufficiently high to enable him and his family to live comfortably and well, but it possessed food in such abundance that the markets, so far from rising by reason of this great increase to the number of the inhabitants, had, on the contrary, a tendency to fall. Thus while in the United Kingdom population inconveniently presses on the means of subsistence, in New South Wales the mere necessaries of life augment at a far greater ratio than the inhabitants.

The obvious remedy for social and financial difficulties, resulting from such very opposite causes, is as much by means of the policy as the power of the Parent State to unite those extremes, so that the material elements of society may be restored to their just and equal balance, and where, as in New South Wales, much of its superabundant food cannot be sent into the United Kingdom, to provide a free ingress from thence into the Colony, for those who may desire to participate in so great an advantage.

In the year 1841 ninety-nine large ships, measuring 35,000 tons, were engaged in the conveyance of Emigrants to that Colony, but neither on this, nor on any similar occasion *, causing thereby any charge on the Revenues of the United Kingdom. On the contrary, its people had the first and immediate benefit of the expenditure in the Home Market of all the money raised in New South Wales, but laid out in the United Kingdom in the equipment of these ships, and it now shares with its Colony in the mutual advantages of the commerce which every accession to the number of the Colonists tends to promote.

With subsistence and a variety of exchangeable products augmenting more rapidly than the population, - if, in 1842, New South Wales could receive with advantage an influx of persons amounting to almost one-fourth of the inhabitants

* In return for an outlay in the purchase of Crown Lands by the Colonists of £1,000,583, the Colonists received from the United Kingdom 17,421 men, 20,451 women, and 13,864 children, in all 51,786 persons of the labouring class. But so inadequate was the amount of labour to be derived in the first years from this immigration, so inferior was it to the amount of capital invested in the purchase of land, that the sales fell off from £316,979 in 1840, to £8,818 in 1844.

[Page 372]

2.

it could at this time, with a population of 200,000, admit into its social system, perhaps fully 50,000 men, women, and children, provided they were conveyed not in one mass, but by monthly drafts, until the whole were located and advantageously distributed in the Colony. When it is remembered that in forty years many now living have seen one single bale of wool from thence of 245 lbs. weight followed in 1846 by an export to England of more than 16,300,000 lbs., it is no unreasonable anticipation that, on a coast such as that of New South Wales *, where steam navigation gives ready access to highly favoured localities for Colonial settlements, annual migrations of 50,000 souls may, within a corresponding period of forty years **, become a continuous migration of inhabitants from the United Kingdom not of 50,000 within a single year, but 50,000 in each month.

Funds alone are wanting to the Colonists for effecting an object so truly worthy of the British race, but by a far-seeing and confiding policy those funds may be created, and with the funds not only the means of transport, but the skilful mariners by whom these vast exodes of the people may safely be transferred from shore to shore, - and by the coextensive commerce that must ensue, promoting a universal civilization throughout the empire, - augmenting its resources, and adding to its power and renown.

For, although it may be true, that distant Australia requires an expenditure of nearly £20 for the conveyance to it of each adult labourer from the United Kingdom and North America but £5, yet if the capital so expended can be reproduced by the labourer four times more rapidly in the former country than in the latter, the economical disadvantages of distance become of no account in the estimate.

All that the Colonists in Australia have long sought, and now seek, for the due promotion of colonization is the guarantee of the Parent State, by which alone, in the first instance, funds are to be obtained for the conveyance of people across the ocean at a moderate rate of interest.

And it may be is worthy of consideration, whether it may not be politic, that she should not in the first year, perhaps not even until the fifth (if need there be,) require the local revenues of the Colony to defray the interest, but retain in her own hands, for the regular payment of such interest, a proportion of each loan.

Because until the children who would as heretofore constitute a large part of every Immigration, are capable of earning their own bread, and the other persons, whether male or female, have acquired some experience in their several avocations,

* The coast line of Eastern Australia, on which the colony of New South Wales is situated, extends from Cape York on the North, to the entrance of Bass’s Straits on the South, in one unbroken line, over a space equal in extent to the shores of France, Portugal, and Spain, from the Gulph of Lyons to the entrance of the British Channel, and possesses climates as fine and soils of as great and varied productiveness as are to be found on the habitable globe.

** When the late Mr. John Macarthur conceived the project of importing Wool from Australia to Great Britain, the Spaniards and Germans almost exclusively supplied the English Market, selling their Wools from ten to twelve shillings the pound, but at present the same description of Wool may be purchased at one-fifth of the money. And it is remarkable that Foreigners now frequent the English Markets in order to purchase Australian Wool. The importation from the whole of the Australian Settlements during the past year amounted to 21,765,270 lbs. of an aggregate importation of 65,255,462 lbs. These colonies receive back of one single branch of English Manufactures alone, Woollen Goods valued at £161,743, of an aggregate exportation from the United Kingdom, to all parts of the world, valued at £6,335,102. But this valuation gives but an inadequate idea of the influence of Australian productiveness on British industry and manufactures. Exclusive of Hosiery this sum is the declared value of upwards of 87,000,000 of yards of fabrics woven from Wool. It is the Wool of Australia that now enables British Manufacturers to compete with Foreigners.

[Page 373]

3.

neither the Colony nor its revenues can have derived the full advantage of their presence. No very large portion of the territory of New South Wales has been alienated either by grant or purchase, so that while the Crown continues to hold the land in fee, and does not let any portion of it for too long a term of years, there will always be adequate security for the repayment of every Emigration Loan. Add to this, each loan would be reproduced within a definite period of time, to be again employed, if required, in the great objects of colonization.

But it has been said, why do not the Colonists generally put such limitations to the increase of their flocks in New South Wales, as to prevent the excessive competition for servants which prevails? The simple reply is, that as long as fine wool in the Colony continues to be in great demand in the Parent State, it will be wholly beyond their power.

While such demand for this material exists, it is no more possible to prevent its increase in Australia, than it is possible in parts of the United Kingdom to stay the progressive increase of a redundant population. Nature, no doubt, at length imposes a positive check, (thereby endangering in New South Wales the important relations that exist between Colonial production and Home manufacture,) when, as in that country, vast flocks now perish for want of attendants, in the same manner, that in the United Kingdom entire masses of the population are decimated by poverty, famine, and disease, and thus the sound portions of the community for a time escapes being drawn into the wide spreading vortex. But the recurrence of these fearful vicissitudes it is the province of true Statesmanship to obviate. Alpine waters, when uncontrolled, may desolate and submerge the plain; but conducted by the hand of science, they become one of the main elements of productiveness.

I have, &c.,
(Signed) Edward Macarthur.

The Lord Monteagles
&c.

[Page 374]

Private Circulation.

Population, Colonies, and Commerce.

London,
July 1847.

[Page 375]

From Sir E. Macarthur to Rev. J. West – incomplete.
Pages 55-56 attached.

[Page 376]

John Benett, M.P. for Wiltshire.
Pages 78-82-6 attached.

[Page 377]

Title – Wages, etc., of a cottager in Wiltshire.
Page 98 attached.

[Page 378]

Page 154 attached.
Caspar Flik
Georg Gerhard
Johann Justies
Johann Stein
Friederich Siekold
Johann Wenz

[Page 379]

The following two documents refer to German emigrants of a subsequent date, viz., 1842.

Johann Baptist Beckhaus
Page 161 attached.
Page 162 attached.

[Page 380]

Page 165 attached.

B
Thomas
Cost
B = emigrant per ship Brothers (M.F. Bet, 1951.)

[Page 381]

Page 171 attached.

[Page 382]

pp. 222-6
Draft of letter to Lord Glenelg? Jan. 1839?

[Page 383]

From an English newspaper.
Page 250 attached.

[Page 384]

See reference to Jung in letter of Nov. 9, 1842 – p.278 forward – and another note of hand on P. 162.

[Page 385]

Pages 279-282 attached.
See back p. 162.

[Page 386]

Page 291 attached.
N.B. The above remarks appear to be a draft used in preparation of the pamphlet, Brief remarks on Colonization, 1846, see forward P. 304 [indecipherable].

[Page 387]

Pages 305-323 attached.
Copy of Brief Remarks on Colonization by Lt. Col. Macarthur, London, 1846.
N.B. Note on pp. 13, 15 appears to refer to G.B. Parl. Papers on Emigration, ordered to be printed March 17, 1843. I have failed to find in Mitchell or P.L. such a Report, No. 15.
M. Flower, Feb. 20, 1952.

[Page 388]

Page 324 attached.
Printed in S.M.H. Jan. 23, 1847.

[Page 389]

P. 329 attached.
Relative to German immigrants. As this draft letter was not among Sir E. Macarthur’s papers on Immigration it has been bound with them.

[Page 390]

Pages 333-336 attached.
N.B. Another copy is addressed to Lord Monteagle.

[Page 391]

[indecipherable] M.F., Jan. 1952.

[Page 392]

[Blank page]

[Page 393]

[Back cover]

[Transcribed by Judy Gimbert for the State Library of New South Wales]